حقيقة الطبيعة البشرية

مصدر الصورة BBC World Service

Hello! Welcome to BBC Xtra English.

Today Dan joined Louay in the studio to talk about the Stanford Prison Experiment.

This experiment was a psychological study which became a dramatic demonstration of how human nature can turn dark under authority.

The experiment took place forty years ago at Stanford University in the USA. During the experiment, 24 students were randomly chosen to act as either guards or prisoners.

Everyone adapted to their roles far better than expected – the 'guards' became extremely authoritarian and even started torturing the 'prisoners'.

Similarly, the people who were acting as prisoners became much more passive, and began to accept their abuse.

Although the guards couldn't physically hurt the prisoners, they were allowed to humiliate them and deprive them of sleep.

They also only addressed the prisoners as numbers and wore sunglasses throughout the experiment, so that there was no eye-contact.

The two-week experiment was stopped after just six days because some of the guards had started to become sadistic and one of the volunteer prisoners went on hunger strike.

One of the ‘prisoners’ we hear from in the programme said he didn’t feel there was anybody rational at the wheel. Even Dr. Philip Zimbardo, the experiment’s controller was doing nothing to control the abuse going on in the prison.

In his interview clip, Dr. Zimbardo says that the experiment tells us something about human nature; that sometimes we don’t have free will and we can be seduced into acting in an atypical manner if the conditions are right.

سؤال: ما الذي تخبرنا به تجربة سجن ستانفورد بشأن الطبيعة البشرية؟ هل تظن أن الناس لهم استعداد طبيعي مسبق للتصرف بقسوة عندما يكونون في موقع السلطة؟

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Randomlyبشكل عشوائي

Adapted تكيف مع

Authoritarian استبدادي

Torturing تعذيب

Passive سلبي

Humiliate إهانة

deprive them of sleep الحرمان من النوم

sadistic سادي (متمتع بتعذيب الآخرين)

Seduced الشعور بإغراء للتصرف بطريقة معينة