Ivyaranz'ubuzima bw'uwari perezida wa Cuba Fidel Castro

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Image caption Fidel Castro yayoboye Cuba mu ntwaro y'umugambwe umwe, kumara imyaka hafi 50

Fidel Castro yari umukuru w'igihugu wa mbere yaburambiyemwo kw'isi kandi aruta abandi mu myaka, kandi naho leta zunze umwe za Amerika zagerageje kumukurako, impera n'imperuka, yaramvye ku butegetsi kurusha abakuru b'igihugu cumi ba Amerika.

Yari icibutso c'uko naho politike y'igi communiste yaranduwe hose kw'isi, yari ikiriho kandi ikibazo hafi yabo.

Castro yavutse mu 1926, avukira mu muryango w'umutunzi Angel María Bautista Castro y Argiz, yari afise ubutaka bwinshi ariko aba umuntu aharanira amahinduka amaze kubona ubudasa buri hagati y'ubuzima bwiwe bwiza n'abandi benshi b'abakene.

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Image caption Batista yari ashigikiwe na Amerika

Yiyemeje gutembagaza ubutegetsi bwa Batista, bwari bwamunzwe n'igiturire, gufata ibintu minenerwe hamwe n'ubudasa bw' ikimanga kinini hagati y'abakire n'abakene.

Cuba yari icibare c'abatunzi bashaka kwinezereza, ikaba yari itwawe n'inkozi z'ikibi zisuganije.

Ubumaraya, akamari hamwe n'ibiyovyabwenge nivyo vyaharangwa.

Castro na bagenzi biwe baharanira amahinduka, bateguye intambara y'abarwanyi bari mu misozi ya Sierra Maestra.

Ku tariki zibiri z'ukwa mbere 1959, igisirikare c'abarwanyi binjiye umuji wa Havana.

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Image caption Ingabo za Castro zinjiye muri Havana mu 1959

Castro yaratsinze, Batista arahunga, Cuba iramutswa leta nshasha, irimwo umunye Argentine Ernest "che" Guevara.

Abatwara Cuba bemeye kuzosubiza ubutaka abanyagihugu no kurwanira uburenganzira bw'abakene.

Ariko haciye igihe gito, leta yashizeko ubutegetsi bw'umugambwe umwe, abantu benshi bashirwa mw'ibohero canke inkambi z'ibikorwa vy'agahato nk'impfungwa za politike. Ibihumbi vyahunze igihugu.

Castro yashimangiye yuko ivyiyumviro vyiwe ubwa mbere na mbere ari ivyo muri Cuba.

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Image caption Castro ari kumwe na Che Guevara bakiri mu ntambara

Ico gihe yagize ati: "Nta communisme canke Marxism, ariko hari demokarasi iserukiwemwo bose hamwe n'ubutungane rusangi mu butunzi butunganijwe neza."

Mu 1960, Fidel Castro yahaye igihugu amashirahamwe yose yari afiswe n'Abanyamerika.

Mu kuyisubiriza mu ndumane, Amerika yaciye ifatira ibihano Cuba.

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Image caption Castro yavuga ko yegereye uruhande rw'aba Sovietes kuko yategerezwa

Castro yavuze ko yategerejwe kwiyegereza abo mu runani rw'aba Soviet hamwe n'umukuru wabo, Nikita Khrushchev, naho hari abavuga yuko yinjiye muri urwo runani ku gushaka.

Icabiteye ico ari co cose, catumye Cuba ishushe ibereye kubamwo, ihinduka ikibanza c'urugamba rwiswe intambara y'ubutiti 'Guerre Froide'.

Mu kwa Kane 1961, Amerika yagerageje gutembagaza leta ya Castro mu gushinga igisirikare kigizwe n'abanye Cuba bahunze ngo batere iryo zinga.

Ku nkombe za Bay of Pigs, abasirikare ba Cuba basubije inyuma ico gitero, bicamwo benshi banafata abashika ku 1000.

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Image caption Castro asinvye ava k mudoka ya gisirikare igihe c'igitero ca Bay of Pigs

Fidel Castro yari asize amaraso izuru ry'igihugu c'igihangange, kandi nticari kuzomubabarira.

Haciye umwaka, indege za Amerika z'iperereza, zasanze ibisasu vya misile vy'aba Soviet biri mu bibanza biri muri Cuba.

Isi yaciye igwa mu kantu mu gihe hari hitezwe intambara ikomeye y'ibirwanisho ruhonyanganda.

Umukuru wa Amerika John F Kennedy yagize ati: "ibibanza bitandukanye birimwo ibisasu biriko birategurwa muri rirya zinga ryagizwe imbohe.

Intumbero y'ivyo bibanza si iyindi atari ukugaba ibitero vy'ibirwanisho ruhonyanganda ku gice c'uburengero bw'isi."

Ibihugu vy'ibihangange vyarabanye ay'ingwe, ariko umukuru w'igihugu Khrushchev niwe yadohotse ubwa mbere, akura missiles ziwe muri Cuba, Amerika nayo yemera gukura rwihishwa ibirwanisho vyayo muri Turkiya.

Guhangana muri Afrika.

Urunani rw'aba Soviet rwashize amahera menshi muri Cuba.

Rwagura nyinshi mu isukari yimburwa muri ico gihugu, amato yarwo akuzura ibivuko vya Havana azanye ivyankenerwa vyinshi ngo bagire impfagusa ibihano vya Amerika.

Naho yafashwa n'aba Soviet, Castro yashize Cuba imbere mu runani rushasha rw'abo ataho begamiye.

Ariko kandi yaragize aho ahagarara, cane cane muri Afrika, arungika abasirikare biwe gufasha abarwanyi b' aba 'Marxistes' muri Angola na Mozambique.

Ariko hagati y'imyaka y'1980, politike y'isi yariko irahinduka.

Yari igihe ca Mikhail Gorbachev, 'galsnost na perestroika', bica bigira ingaruka mbi ku mahinduka ya Castro.

Moscow yaciye ihagarika imfashanyo yaha Cuba mu kwanka gusubira kugura isukari yayo.

Mu gihe ibihano vya Amerika vyari bikiriho kandi imfashanyo y'aba Soviet yahagaritswe, ibura ry'ivyankenerwa hamwe n'ubuguriro butagira ibidandazwa, vyaribonekeza cane muri Cuba.

Kwihangana kwaragabanutse mu gihe imironga y'abatondeye ivyo kurya yaguma iba minini.

Kwimukira

Igihugu Fidel Castro yita ica mbere giteye imbere kw'isi, mu vy'ukuri casubiye kw'isuka.

Hagati y'imyaka y'1990, benshi mu banye Cuba bari bamaze kurambirwa.

Nimba mu ntango abava mu gihugu baba bafise imvo za politike, ibihumbi n'ibihumbi bafata inzira y'amazi baja i Florida barondera ubuzima bwiza.

Benshi baratwawe n'uruzi, ariko cari ikimenyetso c'uko batagifitiye icizere Castro.

Elian Gonzlez, umwana yabuze nyina igihe ubwato barimwo bwatwarwa bari ku nkegero za Florida, yasubijwe Havana nyuma y'ukuburana gukomeye hagati y'umuryango wiwe muri Cuba na leta ya Miami.

Kandi ku butegetsi bwa Castro, Cuba yarashitse kuri vyinshi.

Kuvurwa kandi neza kuri gusa kuri bose, kandi urugero rw'abana bapfa bakiri bato muri Cuba rwangana no mu bihugu vy'ibihangange vyo kw'isi.

Mu myaka yakurikiye, Castro vyasa nk'uko yibagiranye.

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Image caption Papa Jean Paul II yahwituye Castro, ku guhutaza agateka ka muntu, igihe yagendera Cuba

Mu 1998, ku buryo bw'akatarabone, Papa Jean Paul II yagendeye Cuba, ibintu bitari gushobora kwibazwa mu myaka itanu yabanjirije.

Ico gihe Papa yiyamirije Cuba kubera ingene agateka ka zina muntu kahonyorwa, biteza isoni Castro imbere y'ibitangazamakuru vyo kw'isi.

Bimuvuyeko we nyene, Fidel Castro yashinze ubwoko bwihariye bwa politike y'igi communista mu mazinga ya Caraibe, ikaba mu myaka yiwe ya nyuma ku butegetsi, yarategerejwe kuyihindura, ashirako buke buke amasoko yuguruye kugira akize amahinduka yiwe.

Twihweje.

Amakuru yerekeye amagara yiwe, hamwe n'uko yohava asubirirwa na mwene wabo Raul, vyatanguye kuvugwa mu 2004 aho yavunika ivi n'ukuboko kubera kugwa.

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Image caption Hamwe mu bihe bike yashikirije ijambo mu 2006

Ku tariki 31 z'ukw'indwi 2006, hasigaye iminsi mike ngo akwize imyaka 80, Castro yahaye ubutegetsi vy'agateganyo Raul, amaze kubagwa amara kwa muganga.

Cuba yagumye ihakana ko arwaye cancer itazokira kandi mu kwa kabiri 2007, mwenewabo Raul yamenyesheje ko amagara ya Castro ariko aramera neza.

Mu kwezi kwa Kabiri 2008 Castro yamenyesheje ko adashobora kubandanya ari umukuru w'igihugu n'umukuru w'ingabo mu nama ikurikira iyo inama nshingamateka.

Mw'ikete ryasohotse mu kinyamakuru ca leta, vyanditswe ko yavuze ati: "kwoba ari ukwihenda nemeye amabanga ansaba kwiyunguruza rwose, kandi numva umubiri wanje utabishobora."

Ntiyasubiye kuja ahabona, akandika inyandiko zashirwa mu binyamakuru vya leta ku murongo w'umutwe ugira uti 'Umwihwezo wa Camarade Fidel'.

Bwari ubuzima bure bure kandi bwabayemwo vyinshi yashobora kwihwezako.

Mu gihe benshi mu banye Cuba ata nkeka ko banka Castro, abandi vy'ukuri baramukunda.

Bamubona nda David yashobora guhangana na Goliath ariyo Amerika, yashoboye gucira mu maso y'aba "yanqui".

Kuri bo Castro yari Cuba, Cuba nayo yari Castro.