Le Pen na Macron barahurira mu kiganiro mpaka

Emmanuel Macron (ibumoso) yafashwe nk'uwitwaye neza mu kiganiro mpaka cyabanje Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Emmanuel Macron (ibumoso) yafashwe nk'uwitwaye neza mu kiganiro mpaka cyabanje

Abakandida babiri bahanganye mu matora ya perezida mu Bufaransa kuri uyu wa gatatu barahurira mu kiganiro mpaka gihita kuri televiziyo gifatwa nk'indunduro y'ibikorwa byo kwiyamamaza bimaze igihe kandi byaranzwe no gushyamirana.

Intego ya Emmanuel Macron ufite ibitekerezo bifite umurongo uri hagati na hagati n'uwo bahanganye Marine Le Pen ufite ibitekerezo bifite umurongo w'ubuhezanguni ni ugutsindira amajwi y'umubare munini w'Abafaransa batarafata umwanzuro ku mukandida bazatora cyangwa ay'abatora bagishidikanya ku wo bazatora.

Mu gihe Bwana Macron ari imbere cyane mu bipimo by'amatora, ukuza imbere kwe kwagabanutse ndetse n'abatora bari ku kigero cya 18% ntibarafata umwanzuro uhamye w'uwo bazatora.

Ku nshuro ya mbere, nta mukandida uhari uturuka mu ishyaka rimenyerewe cyane mu Bufaransa.

Nubwo bwose se wa Marine Le Pen mu mwaka wa 2002 yashoboye kugera mu cyiciro cya nyuma cy'amatora nk'umukuru w'ishyaka rye rya Front National (FN), uwo bari bahanganye icyo gihe ndetse waje no gutsinda amatora, Jacques Chirac, yanze kwitabira ikiganiro mpaka kubera ko umuyobozi w'ishyaka FN yari afite ibitekerezo by'ubuhezanguni.

Abakandida bombi bagabanyije ibikorwa byo kwiyamaza mu minsi ishize mu rwego rwo kwitegura iki kiganiro mpaka giteganyijwe kuri uyu wa gatatu, kiri butangire ku isaha ya saa tatu z'ijoro zo mu Bufaransa (biraba ari saa moya z'ijoro ku isaha ngengamasaha ya GMT) kikaza kumara amasaha abiri n'iminota makumyabiri.

Kuki iki kiganiro mpaka ari ingenzi cyane?

Habaye ibiganiro mpaka kuri televiziyo mbere y'amatora y'icyiciro kibanza ariko kugeza ubu abakandida babiri b'ingenzi bo ntibarahura bonyine imbona nkubone. Kandi nanone iki kirigufatwa nk'igihe cy'aho bureberwa, kuri televiziyo ebyiri zikomeye cyane kurusha izindi mu Bufaransa, kikaza kuba kirebwa n'Abafaransa miliyoni 20.

Ingingo nyamukuru zose zijyanye no kwiyamamaza ziraza kugarukwaho, uhereye ku kigero cya 10% cy'Abafaransa badafite akazi ukagera ku bukungu, no kuri gahunda ya leta ijyanye n'ubuzima ndetse n'Umuryango w'Ubumwe bw'Uburayi.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Emmanuel Macron (ibumoso) yafashwe nk'uwitwaye neza mu kiganiro mpaka cyabanje

Kuri Marine Le Pen aya ni amahirwe akomeye abonye ko kwibasira no gushaka uburyo yashyira ku karuhanda uwo bahanganye w'imyaka 39 y'amavuko ufatwa nk'utamenyereye akazi.

Emmanuel Macron, nk'umukandida uhabwa amahirwe yo gutsinda amatora, biravugwa ko ari we ushobora guhombera cyane muri iki kiganiro.

Ikiganiro kiragenda gute?

Iki kiganiro mpaka ntikimeze nk'ikiganiro mpaka hagati y'abakandida-perezida muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Amerika aho abakandida bahagarara inyuma y' akameza karekare. Mu Bufaransa ho, ni uguhangana amaso ku maso.

Abakandida bombi baricara ku ntebe nini, Marine Le Pen ibumoso, Emmanuel Macron iburyo. Ikiganiro mpaka hagati y'abakandida-perezida kiramenyerewe cyane mu Bufaransa, kuva mu mwaka wa 1974.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Imyaka itandukanye, uburyo butandukanye ikiganiro mpaka cyakozwemo: 1981, 1988 (hejuru, kuva ibumoso ugana iburyo) no mu mwaka wa 1995 na 2007 (hasi, kuva ibumoso ugana iburyo)

Babiri baza kuba bayoboye ikiganiro mpaka, Nathalie Saint-Cricq na Christophe Jakubyszyn, ni abanyamakuru bakomeye cyane mu nkuru zijyanye na politiki, ariko sibo banyamakuru bo kuri televiziyo b'intyoza bamanyerewe mu Bufaransa. Impamvu nuko abakandida banze abandi bari babanje gutoranywa.

Kandi ntiwitege ko hazaba kuba hari ubushyuhe bukabije nk'ubwo mu mwaka wa 1960 mu gihe cya Richard Nixon wo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z'Amerika. Ubushyuhe buraza gushyirwa ku gipimo cya dogere 19 kugira ngo abakandida baze kuba bafite amafu.

Umukino w'umunsi?

Iki kiganiro mpaka ni ikintu Abafaransa batora bagomba gukurikira ariko hashobora kuba intambara kukurwanira ka kuma gahindura ibiganiro bica kuri televiziyo.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Ntabwo bari buze kuba bakurikiye ikiganiro mpaka: abakinnyi b'ikipe ya AS Monaco bari mu myitozo bitegura umukino wa kimwe cya kabiri w'amakipe y'i Burayi yabaye aya mbere iwayo

Mu gihe ikipe y'umupira w'amaguru ya AS Monaco izakuba ikina na Juventus iminota 15 mbere yuko ikiganiro mpaka gitangira, mu mikino ya kimwe cya kabiri ihuza amakipe yabaye ayambere iwayo ku mugabane w'Uburayi, umukino uza kuba unyura kuri televiziyo yishyuza.

Icyo kwitega muri iki kiganiro mpaka

Ibikorwa byo kwiyamamaza bya Marine Le Pen bishingiye ku nteruro igaragaza gukunda igihugu igira iti: "Hitamo Ubufaransa." Kuri we, ni we mukandida w'ukuri, kandi uwo bahanganye ni umubeshyi ushyigikiwe n'abamye bihariye politiki yo mu Bufaransa.

Ku wa kabiri, abamushyigikiye bakwirakwije igihuha kivuga ko Bwana Macron yakangishaga kwikura mu kiganiro mpaka mu gihe Marine Le Pen yaba atangiye kumukoresha nk'"uwo gukoreraho imyitozo".

Mu butumwa yanyujije ku rubuga nkoranyambaga rwe rwa Twitter, Marine Le Pen yagize ati: "Niba Bwana Macron yumva atanogewe, ashobora kwitabaza [Perezida] François Hollande akaza akamufata akaboko, ntabwo nzamubuza".

Ariko kugira ngo yigarurire abatora bafite impungenge k'umutegetsi ufite ibitekerezo by'ubuhezanguni, ashobora no kuza koroshya imvugo, mu gihe uwo bahanganye we azagukenera kuvuga ashimitse.

Intego ya Emmanuel Macron ni ugushaka kwigaragaza mu buryo buboneye yerekana ko afite gahunda z'umwimerere, mu gihe ibitekerezo by'uwo bahanganye bigiye umujyo umwe kandi bishyira Ubufaransa mu kaga.

Ku wa kabiri Bwana Macron yagize ati: "Ndashaka ko duhura, nkagera ku muzi w'ibibazo, nkerekana ko ibisubizo atanga nta kuri bifite ".

Hari icyo iki kiganiro mpaka cyahindura?

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu Getty Images
Image caption Ku itariki ya 10 z'ukwezi kwa gatanu mu mwaka wa 1974, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (ibumoso) yavuze interuro yavuze ko yatumye atsinda amatora

Ni gacye cyane ibiganiro mpaka byahinduye ibyari kuva mu matora, kubera gusa ko bihuriwemo n'abakandida b'amashyaka abiri y'ingenzi, kandi ibipimo by'amajwi akenshi byabaga bigaragaza neza umukandida uri imbere.

Ariko mu mwaka umwe by'umwihariko, mu kiganiro mpaka cya mbere cyabaye mu mwaka wa 1974, uko Valéry Giscard d'Estaing yitwaye igihe yari yandagajwe kwagaragaye nk'igihe ntakuka cy'intsinzi ye.

François Mitterrand wagenderaga ku matwara ya gisosiyarisiti yari yamaze gutsinda icyiciro cya mbere cy'amatora hanyuma agerageza no kwandagaza uwo bari bahanganye. Yashinjaga Giscard d'Estaing gushyigikira agatsiko k'abantu b'intoranywa mu gihe miliyoni z'Abafaransa bari babayeho nabi. Yavuze ko cyari ikibazo cy'ubwenge kandi gikora ku mutima.

Mu kumusubiza, Bwana Giscard d'Estaing yagize ati: "Bwana Mitterand, ntabwo ushobora kwigarurira umutima".

Iyo nteruro Giscard d'Estaing yavuze ko yatumye abona amajwi ibihumbi magana ane yari akeneye kugira ngo abashe guhindura uko amatora yajyaga kugenda.