Ingaruka z'ihindagurika ry'ibihe kuri Afurika

Afurika byitezwe ko izaba umwe mu migabane izahura n'ingaruka zikomeye z'ihindagurika ry'ibihe zirimo ukwiyongera kw'amapfa, imyuzure n'inkubi z'imiyaga zikomeye zizabangamira cyane ubukungu bw'ibihugu ndetse n'ubuzima bw'abantu.

Kimwe mubizabitera ni ukubera ahantu Afurika iherereye ku mubumbe w'isi.

Ubusanzwe Afurika ni umugabane ushyushe kurusha iyindi ariko byitezwe ko umuvuduko w'ubushyuhe bwayo uziyongeraho inshuro 1 n'ibice 5 kurusha ahandi ku isi nkuko biteganwa n'ikigo cya ONU gihuriweho n'amaleta gikurikiranira hafi ihindagurika ry'ibihe (UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC).

Dore zimwe mu ngaruka zikomeye ikigo IPCC kiteganya ko ihindagurika ry'ibihe rishobora kugira kuri Afurika:

1. Guhinga bizarushaho gukomera

IPCC iravuga ko izamuka ry'ibipimo by'ubushyuhe n'imvura zititezwe bizatuma abahinzi bibagora guhinga imyaka imwe n'imwe nk'ingano, umuceri n'ibishyimbo.

Nk'urugero ngo mu mwaka wa 20150 birashoboka cyane ko umusaruro w'ibigori muri Zimbabwe no muri Afurika yepfo wazagabanukaho inshuro zirenga 30%.

Image caption Izuba ryinshi ririmo guhitana amatungo muri Afurika y'amajyepfo.

Umwe mu bahanga bakomeye mu ihindagurika ry'ibihe akoresheje imibare itangwa na IPCC arateganya ko mu mwaka wa 2100, ibihugu bya Chad, Niger na Zambia bishobora gutakaza ubuhinzi bwabyo kubera ihindagurika ry'ibihe.

Image caption Ihindagurika ry'ibihe ngo rishobora gutuma imyuzure yiyongera.

Ibi rero byaba biteye impungenge cyane kubera ko Banki y'isi ivuga ko abantu babiri kuri batatu muri Afurika iri munsi y'ubutayu bwa Sahara bakora mu buhinzi.

2. Ariko hashobora kuboneka amahirwe mashya mu buhinzi

Ihindagurika ry'ibihe rishobora kwangiza bimwe ariko rero ku rundi ruhande rukazanira n'amahirwe adasanzwe kuri bamwe.

Mu gihe bitaba byoroshye cyane guhinga ibigori muri Afurika y'amajyepfo, bishobora koroha kubihinga mu turere twigiye hejuri two muri Afurika y'uburasirazuba mu bihugu nka Ethiopia, Kenya na Tanzania nubwo bwose muri rusange ishusho y'ubuhinzi bw'impeke ku mugabane wa Afurika itaboneka neza mu myaka iri imbere ugendeye ku biteganwa na IPCC.

Image caption Imyumbati yihanganira izuba cyane.

Niba ihindagurika ry'ibihe ritumye guhinga ibigori mu turere tumwe na tumwe bidashobotse, abadutuye bashobora guhinga ibindi bihingwa nk'imyumbati, byihanganira cyane izuba n'ibura ry'imvura.

3. Indyo idahagije

Ibura ry'ibirwa kubera ihindagurika ry'ibihe rishobora kuzagira ingaruka zikomeye ku buzima bw'abantu.

IPCC irateganya ko muri Mali hafi mu mwaka wa 2025, abana 250 000 bazahura n'ibibazo byo kubona indyo yuzuye bikazatuma badakura neza.

Nubwo umubare w'abantu badafite indyo yuzuye muri Afurika y'ubutayu bwa Sahara ugenda ugabanuka ( umuntu 1 kuri bane), muri rusange bariyongereye kubera ukwiyongera kw'abaturage.

Mu myaka ya za 2050, umubare w'abatuye muri Afurika yo munsi y'ubutayu bwa Sahara byitezwe ko uzikuba inshuro zirenga ebyiri bakagera kuri miliyari imwe na miliyoni magana cyenda.

Ibyo bishatse kuvuga ko hazaba hari abantu benshi bo kugaburira.

4. Malaria

Icyegeranyo cya IPCC kivuga ko imibu itera malaria ishobora kugera mu bihugu itabonekagamo biri ku burebure bwa metero 2000 uvuye ku nyanja.

Image caption Biravugwa ko abantu 500 000 bahitanywe na malaria muri Afurika muri 2013.

5. Ibura ry'amazi

Ibura ry'amazi rizagira ingaruka zikomeye ku buhinzi, ritume indwara ziyongera kandi ritume ibibazo by'ibura ry'umuriro w'amashanyarazi bikara.

Image caption Uruzuba rwatumye benshi batabona amazi ahagije muri Botswana.

Ibura ry'imvura mu gihe kiri imbere rizagira uruhare rukomeye mu bibazo bishingiye ku mazi.

IPCC irateganya ko imvura byitezwe ko izagabanuka mu turere twa Afurika y'amajyaruguru no mu duce twumwe twa Afurika y'amajyepfo.