Ibihugu cumi kw'isi aho ubushomeri bwimonogoje

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Uwurondera akazi ariko araraba aho bagatangaje mu Bushinwa, mu ntara ya Shandong: kugabanuka kw'umuvuduko w'ubutunzi bw'ico gihugu gutanguye guteza ikibazo c'ubushomeri

Ubushinwa bwatangaje muri ino ndwi ko abakozi umuyoni 1,8 bazorungikwa muhira kubera ubutunzi butiyongera, ariko ubushomeri muri ico gihugu buri hasi ugereranije n'ahandi muri Aziya. Reka twihweze ibihubu ubushomeri bwabaye ndanse.

Ibiharuro biheruka gutangwa ku butunzi bw'Ubushinwa vyerekana ko butanguye kugabanya umuvuduko wo kwiyongera.

Abakozi bashika umuriyoni n'ibihumbi amajana umunani bakora mu nganda z'ivyuma, n'ukuvuga 15% vy'abakora muri ico gisata, bazorungikwa muhira nk'uko bivugwa n'ibiro ntaramakuru Reuters.

Ivyo ngo bizokorwa mu ntumbero yo kugabanya umwimbu w'ikirenga mu nganda, hamwe n'uko ibikorwa mu nganda bigenda biragabanuka muri ico gihugu.

Intara zihingura ivyuma vyinshi hamwe n'ibizuku vyitezwe ko arizo zibangamirwa kurusha.

Leta y'Ubushinwa yashize imbere kuronsa akazi bose mu gihugu kandi ico gihugu kigaragaramwo ubushomeri buke ku rugero rwa 4,7% - akaba arirwo rugero ruto rugaragazwa n'ishirahamwe mpuzamakungu rijejwe akazi kw'isi, ILO.

Naho abazotakaza akazi bashika hafi imiriyoni zibiri, ico gihangange co muri Aziya ntikizoja mu bihugu bikomeyemwo ubushomeri - utibagiye ko abakozi gifise ari imiriyoni 806, bakaba ari bo benshi kw'isi kandi bagahakwa gukuba kabiri abo Ubuhindi bufise, busanzwe ari ubwa kabiri kw'isi hakurikijwe ibiharuro vy'ibanki y'isi.

Mu vy'ukuri ibihugu 120 bifise ubushomeri kurusha Ubushinwa, buri muri 25% biri hasi ku rwego rwa ILO.

None ibihugu bikazemwo ubushomeri ni ibihe? Uru ni urutonde rw'ibihugu 10 bigaragaramwo ubushomeri bwinshi kurusha ahandi.

IBIHUGU 10 BIRANGWAMWO UBUSHOMERI KURUSHA IBINDI

  • 1. Mauritania 31.0

  • 2. Bosnia and Herzegovina 27.9

  • 3. Macedonia 27.9

  • 4. Ubugiriki 26.3

  • 5. Lesotho 26.2

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  • 6. Sisjordanie 26.2

  • 7. Afrika y'epfo 25.1

  • 8. Ubusuwisi 24.7

  • 9. Swaziland 22.3

  • 10. Serbia 22.2

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Ibihugu vyo muri Afrika cane cane mu bumanuko no mu burengero, hamwe n'ibihugu vyo mu karere ka Mediterrannee i Buraya nivyo biri imbere, hakurikijwe ibiharuro vyo mu 2014 bitangwa na ILO.

Ikibazo c'akazi muri Afrika

Mauritania igaragaramwo ubushomeri butagabanuka, ku rugero rwa 30%, bikaba bimaze imyaka n'iyindi, mu 2004 urwo rugero rukaba rwarimonogoje rushika kuri 32%

Abahinga bavuga ko ibi biterwa n'imvo nyinshi z'ubutunzi, kuva ku ruzuba rwinshi mu 2012 rwabangamiye ubutunzi bituma urwaruka ruri mu bisaga rushomera (ica kabiri c'abagabo bakiri bato hamwe na 70% vy'abagore nta kazi bafise mu bisagara vyo muri Mauritania), gushika kw'ibura ry'akazi ku bahejeje amashure.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Abanyeshure muri Afrika y'epfo mu myiyerekano yo kwiyamiriza iduzwa ry'amafaranga ya Kaminuza, vyateje ishavu ryinshi ry'uko ata mahirwe abakiri bato bahabwa kuva havaho intwaro ivangura ya apartheid, bikunyurwa n'ubutunzi butifashe neza hamwe n'ubushomeri

Afrika y'epfo ifise igitigiri ca gatatu kinini c'abashomeri ku mugabane wa Afrika. Hejuru no munsi y'urutonde hari ibihugu vyibitse mu bindi nka Lesotho na Swaziland, vyose bikaba bizungurutswe na Afrika y'epfo.

Muri vyo ikibazo c'ubushomeri mu bakiri bato naho kirahakomeye. Ibiharuro vyatororokanijwe n'ikigo Good Governance Afrika (GGA) vyerekana ko urwaruka muri Afrika y'epfo arirwo rwa mbere muri Afrika bigora kuronka akazi.

GGA kigira giti, "Afrika y'epfo nico gihugu conyene aho usanga kure y'ica kabiri c'abari hagati y'imyaka ya 15 na 24 ari abashomeri. Urugero rwa 52,6% vy'ubushomeri mu bakiri bato, nirwo ruri hejuru kurusha ibindi muri Afrika."

Ikinyamakuru Forbes naco kigira giti "iragi ry'intwaro karyanishamiryango ya apartheid, inyigisho zidakwiye hamwe no kwigishwa imyuga bidashemeye, ibura ry'akazi, hamwe no kubura kwa ba rwiyemezamirimo" nivyo bituma Afrika y'epfo iri mu kibanza irimwo.

Ikibazo i Buraya

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP
Image caption Amashirahamwe y'abakozi mu Bugiriki yatunganije imyiyerekano i Athenes mu kwezi kw'icumi na kabiri guheruka, yo kwiyamiriza igabanywa ry'abakozi mu gisata c'ubuvuzi.

Ikibazo c'ubutunzi cashikiye isi mu 2007 congereje ubushomeri kw'isi kuva ku miriyoni 178 mu 2007 gushika ku miriyoni 212 mu 2009, nk'uko bitangazwa na ILO.

Cagize ingaruka z'ako kanya ku karere gakoresha ifaranga rya Euro.

Ubushomeri mu Bugiriki na Espagne vy'umwihariko, bwashitse ku rugero ruteye ubwoba kuko ikibazo c'ubutunzi cabangamiye ivyo bihugu cane kurusha ibindi.

Mike Patton yihweza utuntu n'utundi aheruka kwandika mu kinyamakuru Forbes agira ati "Ibibazo vy'ubutunzi bw'Ubugiriki si ibanga. Ubushomeri muri ico gihugu bwari busanzwe gushika mu 2008 igihe bwatangura kuduga."

Ubushomeri mu rwaruka ni ikirenga, gushika ku 49,5%, kabiri kw'ijana gusa hejuru ya Espagne.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu GETTY IMAGES EUROPE
Image caption Icandiko gitangaza igabanywa ry'ibiciro kimanitse ku biro bidandaza amazu muri Espagne: isoko ry'amazu ryarahomvye, ubushomeri buriyongera mu gihugu.

Muri Espagne, ubushomeri buhari bwibutsa ubwigeze kuharanga mu myaka y'1980 n'1990.

Mu bihugu vya Balkans bishobora kuba bisa n'ivyo, ariko impamvu si zimwe.

Abahinga bavuga ko ubushomeri buri hejuru bushobora guterwa na leta ziba zikiri nshasha canke ibihugu biheruka kuronka ukwikura canke biheruka mu bibazo vya politike, kubera ingaruka zo guhindura politike z'ubutunzi, inyubako zasambuwe canke abanyagihugu bagahunga.

Muri Bosnie na Herzegovine, ikibazo bivugwa ko catewe n'intambara yo muri Bosnia yaheze mu 1995. Urugero rw'ubushomeri mu rwaruka rwaho nirwo ruri hejuru kurusha ibindi kw'isi, bikunyurwa n'igiturire hamwe n'ubutunzi budatera imbere.

Macedonia ku rundi ruhande, yahoze ari igihugu kirimwo ubushomeri bwinshi kikiri Yugoslavia. Ubushomeri bwagumye buri hejuru imyaka myinshi naho ubutunzi bwiyongereye cane, bikagaragara ko ikibazo ari ukuntu ibintu bitunganijwe.

Urugero rw'ubushomeri ruharurwa gute?

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu AFP

Hakurikijwe ibishikirizwa n'ikigo mpuzamakungu kijewe akazi, ubushomeri bujanye n'igitigiri c'abantu bashoboye gukora batagira akazi ariko bagashaka kandi bariko barakarondera.

Ni ijanisha ry'abashoboye gukora bose bari mu gihugu (n'ukuvuga uteranije abashomeri hamwe n'abafise akazi).

Ariko hariho ingorane nyinshi zijanye no kugereranya urugero rw'ubushomeri rw'igihugu kimwe n'ikindi.

Ibihugu bimwe ntibitanga amakuru yizewe biciye mu biro vyavyo bijejwe abashomeri, rero amakuru akoreshwa mu guharura hari aho usanga ashaje canke adahuye.

Rero mu ntumbero yo kwihweza ivyo biharuro, abantu bafatwa nk'abashomeri ni abatanguye kurondera akazi mu ndwi zine ziba zihaciye.

Iyo ubushomeri buri hejuru, bamwe barahagarika kurondera kuko bacika intege, rero ubwo ntibaba bagiharuwe mu bashomeri.

Kuri ubwo rero bica bisigura ko urugero rw'ubushomeri rwagabanutse naho atacahindutse ku kubonekwa kw'akazi.

Ababinenga bobo bavuga ko "abashomeri banyegeje" canke "abakora akazi kadakwiye", bigoye kubaharura kandi ni gake bitabwaho, mu gihe wosanga urugero rw'ubushomeri mu bihugu vyinshi ruca ruba hejuru gusumvya ibiharuro bizwi kw'isi.

Uwufise ububasha kw’isanamu GETTY IMAGES ASIA PACIFIC
Image caption Abakozi umuriyoni 1,8 bakora mu nganda zihingura ivyuma n'ibizuku, n'ukuvuga 15% vy'abakozi bakora muri ico gisata, biteze gutakaza akazi.