Masu naƙuda na fuskantar hatsari da matuƙar ciwo

  • 9 Fabrairu 2017

Haihuwa ka iya zuwa da ɗaukan lokaci kuma da ciwo. Tana ma iya zuwa da mutuwa. Hukumar lafiya ta duniya ta yi ƙiyasin cewa kimanin mata 830 ne ke mutuwa kullum saboda cutukan da ake gamuwa da su lokacin goyon ciki da haihuwa - haƙiƙa ma an samu raguwa da kashi 44 cikin 100 a kan yadda abin yake a 1990.

"Wannan adadin abin firgitarwa ne," a cewar Jonathan Wells, mai nazarin abincin yara a wata jami'a da ke London. "Kalilan ne ƙwarai ake samun salwantar rai a wajen matan dabbobi masu shayarwa a lokacin haihuwa."

To, amma me ya sa haihuwa take da sammatsi ga ɗan'adam? Shin akwai wani abu da za mu iya yi don rage yawan mace-macen nan?

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Juan Manuel Borrero/naturepl.com)
Image caption Mutanen farko sun riƙa tafiya a miƙe tsawon shekaru miliyoyi (Credit: Juan Manuel Borrero/naturepl.com)

Masana kimiyya sun fara tunani a kan matsalar haihuwa a wajen ɗan'adam a tsakiyar karni na 20. Nan da nan kuma suka gano wani abu da ke ƙoƙarin fayyace abin da ke faruwa. A cewarsu matsalar ta faro ne tun daga kan asalin mutanen farko - the hominins.

Tun fil'azal, jariran mutanen farko mai yiwuwa sai sun yi kurɗa-kurɗa wajen fitowa daga cikin uwa. An ƙiyasta shekarun sauran diddigar mutanen mafi daɗewa a duniya da aka samu a kan kimanin miliyan bakwai.

Nau'in mutane ne da ba mu da kamanni sosai da su, sai dai ƙila ta waje ɗaya: wasu masu bincike suna tunanin cewa ko a wancan lokaci mutanen farko suna tafiya car a kan ƙafarsu biyu.

Idan ana so a naƙalci tafiya da ƙafa biyu, sai ƙwarangwal ya tura kuma ya zaro zuwa wata sabuwar siga, da za ta shafi kwankwaso. Kafar haihuwa a wajen mafi yawan dabbobi masu kaifin basira kamar mutanen farko a miƙe yake.

Nan da nan kuma sai abubuwa suka fara sauyawa. Kwankwaso ya fara tsukewa, kafar haihuwa ya jirkice - zuwa wani mazurari da ya sha banban a girma da siffa. To, daga wannan lokaci ne, jariran mutanen farko sai sun yi juyi sun kukkurɗa kafin su fito duniya.

Kimanin shekara miliyan biyu da ta wuce, kakanninmu mutanen farko sai suka ci gaba da sauyawa. Suka zubar da kamannin birrai, irinsu gajarta da zanƙala-zanƙalan hannuwa da ƙaramar ƙwaƙwalwa.

Maimakon haka sai siffarsu ta fara ɗaukar ta ɗan'adam, kamar dogon jiki da gajerun hannuwa da babbar ƙwaƙwalwa. Wannan tasa haihuwa ta kasance wani gagarumin jan aiki saɓanin baya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: P. Plailly/E. Daynes/Science Photo Librar
Image caption Akasarin mutanen farko na tafiya a kan ƙafarsu (Credit: P. Plailly/E. Daynes/Science Photo Library)

Mutane masu babbar ƙwaƙwalwar sun samo asali ne tun wajen haihuwa, saboda haka salsalar rayuwar ɗan'adam ta riƙa cin karo da juna.

A hannu guda sai tsukakken kwankwason matan farko ya takure kafar haihuwa ta haka suna iya yin tafiya tiryan-tiryan a kan ƙafa biyu. Sai dai kuma a lokaci guda 'yan tayin da suke ɗauke da su sai suka fara fitowa da manyan kawuna, waɗanda sai sun takura, sun takura a tsakanin tsukakken kwankwaso..

Haihuwa sai ta zama mai matuƙar ciwo da hatsarin gaske, har zuwa yau.

A shekarar 1960, wani ƙwararre a fannin bunƙasar rayuwar al'ummomi da al'adunsu, da ake kira Sherwood Washburn ya bai wa matsalar suna: 'tsaka mai wuya.' Masana kimiyya na ganin matsalar ta amsa sunanta. Har yanzu da dama na ganin haka al'amarin yake.

Sai dai wasu irinsu Wells ba su gamsu da wannan bayani ba. A shekara biyar da ta wuce, Wells da sauran masu bincike sun fara shure bayanin tsaka mai wuya da ke tattare da haihuwa.

Suna cewa fahimtar Washburn ta yi sauƙi da yawa, kuma akwai ɗumbin dalilai da ke haifar da matsalar haihuwa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Science Photo Library/Alamy)
Image caption Mata da dama kan yi amfani da dabarun rage raɗaɗi a yayin naƙuda (Credit: Science Photo Library/Alamy)

Holly Dunsworth ta Jami'ar Rhode Island da ke Kingston ta samu kanta cikin masu muhawara kan da'awar tsaka mai wuya game da haihuwa a lokacin da take karatun digirin farko. "Na ɗauka abin burgewa ne, sai na duƙufa wajen gano hujjar da ke tabbatar da halin tsaka mai wuya a lokacin haihuwa," in ji ta. "Sai dai babu daɗewa, sai komai ya wargaje."

Muna da manyan jarirai waɗanda aka ɗauki tsawon lokaci ana goyon cikinsu.

Matsalar dai tana tattare da hasashen da Washburn ya yi. "Lokacin da Washburn ya rubuta muƙalarsa, ya yi nuni da cewa an shawo kan halin tsaka mai wuya ta hanyar haifar 'yan tayi da zarar sun fara girma," in ji Wells.

Idan muka koma zamanin baya kimanin shekara miliyan biyu, lokacin da ƙwaƙwalwar mutum ta fara girma, Washburn ya yi nuni da cewa mutane sun samu waraka: a takaita tsawon lokaci rainon ciki. A riƙa haifo jarirai kafin lokacin da ya kamata a haife su, ta yadda za su fito suna kanana, kwakwalwarsu 'yar ƙanƙanuwa.

Bayanin Washburn a hankalce ya gamsar. Duk wanda ya ɗauki jariri sabuwar haihuwa zai fahimci yadda ƙanƙantarsu take, kuma suna da rauni. Fahimtar da aka samu ita ce wasu nau'o'in birrai suna ɗaukar tsawon lokaci kafin su haife 'ya'yansu, waɗanda girmansu ya bunƙasa sosai.

Amma, Dunsworth ta ce wannan ƙarara shifcin gizo ne.

Hakkin mallakar hoto :blickwinked/Alamy)
Image caption 'Ya'yan dabbobi irin na kanki suna fara tafiya ne kai tsaye da zarar an haife su (Hoto: blickwinked/Alamy)

A cewarta "Muna da manyan jarirai da ke shafe tsawon lokaci a ciki fiye da tsammanin mutum."

A hankalce goyon ciki a wajen mutum yana ɗaukar tsawon lokaci. Ɗan'adam na shafe a ƙalla mako 38 zuwa 40, saɓanin yadda gwaggon biranya ke tarairayar juna biyunta a mako 32, sannan wasu nau'o'in manyan gwaggon birrai na haihuwa bayan mako 37.

Tamkar yadda Dunsworth da abokan aikinta suka bayyana a muƙalarsu ta shekarar 2012, haka lamarin yake ko da an daidaita tsawon lokacin goyon ciki bisa la'akari da bambancin girman jiki. Juna biyu a wajen ɗan'adam kan zarce yadda abin yake a wajen gwaggon biranya da kwana 37.

Haka ma abin yake ta fuskar girman ƙwaƙwalwa. Mata na haihuwar jarirai masu girman ƙwaƙwalwa fiye da na gwaggon biranya mai kwatankwacin girman jikin wannan matar. Wannan na nufin jigon hasashen Washburn a kan halin tsaka mai wuya ba daidai ba ne.

Akwai sauran matsaloli da ke tattare da bayanan Washburn.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Visuals Unlimited/naturepl.com)
Image caption Kwankwason namiji (hagu) da na mace (dama) (Credit: Visuals Unlimited/naturepl.com)

Jigon kintacen da aka yi a kan halin tsaka mai wuya lokacin haihuwa, shi ne faɗi da girman kwankwaso musammam ga mata, wanda ya kan takure sakamakon yadda muke tafiya tsaye ƙiƙam da kafa biyu.. Baya ga haka, idan salsalar rayuwa za ta iya zama "waraka" ga matsalar haihuwa ta hanyar ƙara faɗin ƙugu da girman kafar haihuwa, da tuni hakan ta yiwu.

Kafar haihuwa na da ban mamaki ta fuskar bambancin faɗi da fasali.

A shekarar 2015, Anna Warrener a Jami'ar Harvard ta Cambridge da ke Massachusetts da sauran abokan aikinta sun jefa alamar tambaya a kan wannan kintacen ilimi.

Masu bincike sun tattara bayanai kan sinadaran tafi da rayuwa na maza da mata wadanda ke tafiya da gudu a ɗakin gwaje-gwaje.

Masu sirantar kwankwaso ba su fi takwarorinsu masu kaurin kwankwaso gwanintar iya tafiya da kuma sheƙawa da gudu ba. Ta fuskar la'akari da zafin nama, a ƙalla babu wani abu da zai hana mutum samun faɗin kwankwaso ta yadda haihuwa za ta zo cikin sauƙi.

"Tushen da ake alaƙantawa da halin tsaka mai wuya cewa ƙarami ko tsukakken kwankwaso ya fi dacewa da kazar-kazar ɗin jiki - ta yiwu ba daidai ba ne," a cewar Helen Kurki ta Jami'ar Victoria da ke British Columbia a ƙasar Kanada.

Kurki ba ta sa kanta cikin binciken Warrener ba, amma dai bincikenta ya bankaɗo ƙarin matsaloli game da kintacen halin tsaka mai wuya ga masu haihuwa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Hoto: Blend Images/Alamy)
Image caption Haihuwa takan zo da tsananin ciwo (Hoto: Blend Images/Alamy)

Matuƙar kwankwason mace na fuskantar yanayi mabanbanta daga ɓangare biyu - buƙatar tsukewa yayin tafiya da kuma buƙatar ƙara faɗi don haihuwa - ba shakka fasalin kafar haihuwa za ta ɗan bambanta a tsakanin mata. Zaɓin rayuwa ne zai iya "daidaitawa".

Masu juna biyu kan ji raha su ce ɗan tayin cikinsu kamar yana zuƙe musu kuzari.

Sai dai bayan nazartar ƙwarangwal na ɗaruruwan mutane, Kurki ta ruwaito a shekarar 2015 cewa kafar haihuwa na da bambanci mai ban al'ajabi ta fuskar girma da fasali. Bambancin ya ma fi na dantsen mutum.

"Ina jin sakamakon bincikena ya goyi bayan sauya tunani game da halin tsaka mai wuya a kan haihuwa," in ji Kurki.

Kyakkyawan bayanin Washburn ba shi da wata gamsarwa kamar yadda abin yake a baya. Don kuwa akwai wani abu daban da ke wakana.

Dunsworth na jin cewa ta gano wani muhimmin abu da ya shige duhu cikin wannan rikitaccen al'amari; kuzari.

"Muna gama suƙewa a lokacin da ciki ya tsufa," a cewar Dunsworth, wadda ita ma uwa ce. "Makonni ko watannin ƙarshe na juna biyu na da gajiyarwa. Suna kwashe yawan sinadaran tafiyar da rayuwa na ɗan'adam. A wasu lokuta suna ƙarewa."

Salsalar rayuwa bisa tsari, ka iya ƙara kaurin kwankwaso -amma hakan ba ta samu ba.

Masu juna biyu kan bushi iska su yi raha da cewa ɗan tayinsu na zuƙe musu abinci kamar tsutsar ciki. A hankalce haka abin yake, buƙatar kuzarinsa tana ƙaruwa a kullum.

Taƙamaimai, ƙwaƙwalwar mutum na bukatar ɗumbin kuzari da ba a iya gamsar da ita komai yawan wanda aka ba ta. Samun juna biyu, wato ƙarin wata ƙaramar ƙwaƙwalwa a cikin mahaifa ka iya sanya wa mace ta suƙe idan ana magana ta sinadaran tafi da rayuwa.

Dunsworth ta sanya wa wannan tunani sunan kintacen kazar-kazar ɗin rainon ciki da girmansa. Yana nuni da cewa lokacin haihuwa ya ta'allaƙa ne a kan ci gaba da ɗawainiyar ciyar da ɗan tayin da ya girma sama da mako 39 - amma ba wahalhalun takurar da jariri ya sha a wajen fitowa duniya ta kafar haihuwa ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Hoto: Cultura Creative RF/Alamy)
Image caption Wannan hoton cikin ciki yana nuni da cikakken girman ɗan tayi (Hoto: Cultura Creative RF/Alamy)

Dunsworth na jin cewa mutane sun cika damuwa a kan matsewar da kan jariri ke sha a tsakanin kwankwason uwa. Kawai dai arashi aka samu ɓangarorin biyu sun kusanci juna, amma kwankwaso na samun bunƙasa gwargwadon buƙatarsa. Kusan haka abin yake, Kurki na da tunani irin wannan. "Kafar haihuwa na da isasshen girma, ta yadda mafi yawan lokuta jariri zai fito sumul ƙalau," in ji ta.

Gaskiyar batun kenan. Duk da haka, sake duba alkaluman mace-macen mata masu juna biyu: a duk rana mata 830 na mutuwa. Ko tsakanin matan da ba su mutu ba, yayin haihuwa, wasu nazarce-nazarce da aka yi sun nuna cewa, haihuwa kan janyo musu raunuka da ke sauya rayuwarsu da kashi 40 cikin 100, Sadaukar da ran da mata ke yi a wajen haihuwa na da matuƙar yawan ban al'ajabi..

Wells ya yarda cewa. "Ba za ta yiwu a iya ƙaddara cewa matsalar ta kai tsananin haka a tsawon lokaci ba."

A shekarar 2012, Wells da abokan aikinsa sun yi nazari a kan asalin haihuwa tun fil'azal, inda suka fito da sakamako mai ban mamaki. Ga mafi rinjayen salsalar rayuwar ɗan'adam, haihuwa ka iya zuwa cikin sauƙi matuƙa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Hoto: Volker Steger/4 shekaru miliyan 4 na mutum/
Image caption Dogayen mutanen da suka rayu shekara miliya ɗaya da dubu 900 (Homo erectus) sun fi mu haihuwa cikin sauƙi (Hoto: Volker Steger/4 shekaru miliyan 4 na mutum/kimiyya)

Haihuwa a can fil'azal fage ne mai wahalar nazari. Kalilan ne samun ɓurɓushin ƙashin kwankwaso na mutanen farko da aka adana, kuma ƙoƙon kawunan jariransu sukan sirance a cikin ƙasa. Amma 'yar shaidar da aka tattara, ga alama mutanen farko ciki har da masu sankata-sankatan jikin nan (Homo erectus) da Turawan farko (Neanderthals) sun yi haihuwa cikin sauƙi.

Haƙiƙa, Wells da takwarorinsa sun yi tunanin cewa kamata ya yi haihuwa ta zo wa jinsinmu da ƙarancin matsaloli - aƙalla tashin farko. Akwai ƙwarangwal ɗin jarirai a cikin ɓurɓushin mafarautan farko, da ke ba da hasken cewa akwai ƙarancin mace-mace a tsakanin jariransu.

Wannan abu ya sauya a 'yan shekaru dubbai da suka wuce. Noman da mutane suka fara, ya sa ƙwarangwal ɗin jarirai zama ruwan dare a cikin kayan kufai da ake tattarawa aƙalla a wasu wurare.

Idan akwai ƙaruwar mace-mace a tsakanin jarirai lokacin da mutum ya fara noma, to hakan na da alaƙa da dalilai masu yawa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Credit: Jose Antonio Penas/Science Photo Library)
Image caption Noma ne ya sake sauya fasalin jikinmu (Credit: Jose Antonio Penas/Science Photo Library)

Misali, Manoman farko da suka fara rayuwa a mazaunai masu yawan jama'a, ta haka sai cutuka masu yaɗuwa suka ƙara zama gagarumar matsala. Sau da yawa jarirai ne suka fi shiga hatsarin kamuwa a lokacin da cuta ta ɓarke.

Sai dai Wells da abokan aikinsa na zargin cewa komawa zuwa noma ya janyo wasu manya-manyan sauye-sauye da suka sanya haihuwa ta ƙara zama mai matuƙar wahala. Ƙaruwar mutuwar jarirai lokacin da mutane suka durfafi noma, a wani ɓangare na da alaƙa da ƙaruwar kasadar mutuwa a yayin haihuwa. Sai kwatsam haihuwa ta ƙara zama mai wahala a shekaru kimanin dubu goma da suka wuce.

Akwai wani muhimmin al'amari da masu nazarin kufai suka lura da shi a lokacin da suke kwatanta ƙwarangwal ɗIn manoman farko da kakanninsu mafarauta. An lura manoman suna da gajarta, mai yiwuwa saboda abincinsu na cika-ciki ba shi da gina jiki idan an kwatanta da abincin mafarauta mai ƙara lafiya.

A cewar Wells, wannan abu ne da masu nazarin haihuwa suka lura da shi, don kuwa akwai shaidar da ke alaƙanta tsayin mace da kuma girma da surar kwankwasonta.

A dunƙule, gwargwadon gajartar mace, gwargwadon tsukewar kugunta.

Wato dai komawa zuwa noma kusan tabbas ya sanya haihuwa zama mai ɗan ƙarin ƙalubale. Bugu da ƙari, abincin cika-ciki da ya zama gidan kowa ka iya sanya ɗan tayi ƙara girma da taiɓa. Hakan ta ƙara sanya jariri wuyar haihuwa.

Idan ka dunƙule waɗannan sababi guda biyu da haihuwa - wadda ka iya zama mai sauƙi a miliyoyin shekaru da suka wuce - kwatsam kuma sai ta zama da ƙarin wahala a shekara dubu goma a baya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Hoto: Blend Images/Alamy)
Image caption Goyon ciki na da matuƙar gajiyarwa (Hoto: Blend Images/Alamy)

Wani abu mai kamar "tasirin juyin-juya-halin noma" ka iya bijirowa a duk lokacin da sinadaran gina jiki suka yi rauni a cikin abincin ɗan'adam - musamman idan sun ƙunshi ɗumbin nau'in abinci cika-ciki da sukari, waɗanda ke janyo girman ɗan tayi.

"Muna iya yin wani hasashe mai sauƙi na cewa a iya danganta matsayin abinci mai gina jiki a wajen uwa da ƙaruwar mace-macen mata masu juna da biyu da kuma wahalhalun da ake sha a yayin haihuwa," a cewar Wells. Ƙididdiga ƙarara tana bin wannan siga ne, inda take nuna cewa bunƙasa abinci mai gina jiki ka iya zama hanya mai sauƙi ta rage mutuwar mata masu juna biyu.

Jikin mata masu juna biyu ya saba tarairayar ɗan tayi da abinci mai gina jiki gwargwadon iyawa.

Dunsworth da Kurki na ganin cewa Wells ya gano wani muhimmin al'amari cikin aikinsa, wani abu da mai yiwuwa zai zama hujja kawai ga mai bincike da yake da masaniya kan abinci mai gina jiki da girman mutum.

"Na yi sa'a, ganin cewa Jonathan ya bayyana wadannan batutuwa masu sarƙaƙiya daga fahimtarsa a fagen nazarin lafiyar ɗan'adam," in ji Dunsworth. " "A lokaci guda kuma, ina tunkarar al'amarin daga fahimtar salsalar rayuwar ɗan'adam."

Don haka, yanzu ma iya samun sabon fashin baƙi kan wahalhalun da ake fuskanta wajen haihuwa. Jikin mata masu juna biyu ya saba ciyar da ɗan tayinsu gwargwadon iyawarsa tun kafin ya yi girman da zai iya ciyar da kansa a ciki.

Kwankwason mata ya sauya zuwa gwargwadon girman da zai bari ɗan tayin da ya ci ya ƙoshi zai iya gangarawa sumul ƙalau. Sai dai sauye-sauyen abinci a 'yan shekaru dubbai ya jirkita wannan lamari, inda haihuwa ta koma wata aba mai cike da kasada - musammam a wajen iyaye mata da ba sa samun isasshen abinci mai gina jiki.

Sai dai, Dunworth ta ce mai yiwuwa ba ƙarshen maganar kenan ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (hagu) da danta (Hot
Image caption Gwaggon biranya da jikarta (hagu) da kuma ɗanta (Hoto: Fiona Roger/naturepl.com)

Hikimomin Washburn na da azanci tsawon gomman shekaru, kafin Dunsworth, Wells, Kurki da wasu su fara sukar lamirinsu. Dunsworth ta tambaya "To idan fahimtar cewa kwai na tasowa sama idan an sanya shi a cikin ruwan gishiri kaɗai, tana da ƙamshin gaskiya fa? "Kamata ya yi mu ci gaba da bincike da tattara shaida."

A shekarar 2015 Barbara Fischer ta Cibiyar nazarin salsalar rayuwa da fahimta ta Konrad Lorenz da ke Klosterneuburg a ƙasar Austriya da Philipp Mitteroecker na Jami'ar Vienna da ke Austriya sun sake nazari a kan kwankwason mace.

Kwankwason mace na ɗaukar fasali mafi dacewa da haihuwa a lokacin da shekarunta suka kai na 'yan matanci - sa'ad da ta zama balagaggiya.

Ga alama kintacen Dunsworth a kan ko kwai zai nutse ko ya taso sama idan an sanya shi a cikin ruwa - ko da yake yana da ƙamshin gaskiya - amma haƙiƙa tamkar ɗorawa ne kan nazarin Washburn, maimakon yin watsi da shi kacokam. Dunsworth ta yarda cewa: Sabubba da yawa na da alaƙa da salsalar haihuwa a wannan zamani.

Fischer da Mitteroecker sun yi bincike kan ko akwai wata dangantaka tsakanin fasalin girman kan 'ya mace da faɗin kwankwasonta. Kai, ana gadon girmansa ne, aƙalla a wasu lokuta, don haka abin kan zama alheri ga mata a yayin haihuwa, idan masu ƙaton kai, suka kasance suna da faɗin kwankwaso.

Nazarin masu bincike a kan ƙwarangwal guda 99 ya nuna cewa tabbas akwai irin wannan alaƙa. Sun ƙarƙare cewa fasalin girman kan mace da fadin kwankwasonta tabbas na da dangantaka ta wajen gado ko 'yar yaya.

"Wannan ba yana nufin cewa an warware (matsalar haihuwa) kenan ba," in ji Fischer. Amma matsalar ka iya ƙazancewa idan babu alaƙa tsakanin fasalin girman kai da faɗin kwankwaso.

Akwai wata matsalar kuma: Jikin mace na sauyawa lokacin da ta fara manyanta

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Tetra Images/Alamy)
Image caption A ƙarshe dai sai a samu jariri mai ban sha'awa (Credit: Tetra Images/Alamy)

A watan Mayun 2016, wani bincike a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Marcia Ponce de Leon da Christoph Zollikofer na Jami'ar Zurich da ke Switzerland ya nazarci bayanan kwankwason mutum 275 - maza da mata - masu shekaru daban-daban. Masu binciken sun ƙarƙare da cewa kwankwaso yana sauya fasali a tsawon rayuwar mace.

Ana haifar jarirai da yawa ta hanyar tiyata.

Bayanansu sun nuna cewa kwankwason mace na ɗaukar siffa mafi dacewa da haihuwa a shekarunta na 'yan matanci - zuwa balagarta. Daga nan sai ya ci gaba da kasancewa a haka har zuwa lokacin da ta cika shekara 40, sa'ad da za ta fara sauya fasali a hankali tana fita daga shekarun haihuwa.

Masu ilmin kimiyya sun nuna cewa waɗannan sauye-sauye suna ɗan sauƙaƙa haihuwa sabanin yadda abin yake. Suna kiran wannan tunani da "girman halin tsaka mai wuya" (DOD).

Ponce de Leon ya ce "kintace a kan girman halin tsaka mai wuya na yin bayani a kan banbance-banbancen sigogin haihuwa."

Idan ɗaukacin waɗannan matakai na salsalar rayuwa na da tasirin kan haihuwa, shin har yanzu ana ci gaba da samun sauyi?

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Martin Valigursky/Alamy)
Image caption Jaririn da aka haifa ta hanyar tiyata (Credit: Martin Valigursky/Alamy)

A watan Disamban 2016 ne, Fischer da Mitteroecker suka shiga kanun labarai da wata muƙala da ta warware wannan matsala.

Nazarin farko-farko sun nuna cewa jarirai masu girma sun fi yiwuwar tsawon kwana kuma girmansu a lokacin haihuwa wani abu ne da aƙalla ake gado.

Gaba ɗaya waɗannan sabubba ka iya sanya ɗan tayin mutum ya banƙara girman kwankwaso, ko da kuwa hakan ka iya zama mai hatsari idan banƙarawar ta yi yawa. Jarirai da dama ne yanzu ake haifarsu ta hanyar tiyata, inda ake ciro ɗan a cikin mahaifiyarsa, tun kafin ya shiga hanyar fitowa duniya. Fischer da Mitteroecker ya nuna cewa a al'ummomin da tiyatar C- section ta zama ruwan dare, 'yan tayi sun iya girma "fiye da kima" a yanzu kuma duk da haka su shaƙi iskar duniya.

Bisa ra'i, adadin mata da ke haifar jariran da suka girma sosai ta yadda ba za su iya banƙara kwankwaso su fito duniya ba mai yiwuwa sun ƙaru da kashi 10 ko 20 cikin 100 a 'yan shekaru gommai aƙalla a wasu yankuna na duniya.

Ko ma a faɗa gatsal-gatsal, mutane a irin waɗannan yankuna na hayayyafar manyan jarirai. Ya zuwa yanzu wannan tunani ne kawai, babu wata ƙwaƙƙwarar shaida da ke tabbatar da faruwar haka. Amma dai tunani mai sanya ƙwaƙwa. Wells ya ce "Dukkanmu ko dai mun zo duniya ta hanyar kwankwaso ko kuma a'a, idan mun biyo, akwai matsalar kwankwaso. Idan ba mu biyo ba, hakan ma wani abin burgewa ne."

Tun da aka fara haihuwa, jarirai na takura bisa la'akari da girman kafar haihuwa. Amma ga alama wasu jariran aƙalla a yanzu ba haka ba ne.