Nigeria: Kun san yadda Biafra ta samo asali?

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Biafra wata kalma ce da masu fafutikar ballewa daga Najeriya a yankin Kudu maso Gabashin kasar suke amfani da ita wajen bayyana fatansu na ganin sun kafa kasar kansu wadda su kai wa lakabi da "Jamhuriyar Biafra".

Sunan Biafra ya samo asali ne da gabar mashigin tekun Atlantic da ke yankin Kudu maso Gabashin kasar.

Galibi mutanen da suke zaune a yankin 'yan kabilar Igbo ne amma akwai wasu kabilu kamar Efik da Ibibio da Annang da Ejagham da Eket da Ibeno da kuma Ijaw.

Kokarin ballewar yankin daga Najeriya shi ne babban dalilin da ya jawo yakin basasar kasar wanda ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar kimanin mutum miliyan biyu galibi saboda yunwa.

A shekarar 1960 ne Najeriya ta samu 'yancin kai daga Birtaniya. Galibin jama'ar da ke yankin arewacin kasar Musulmi ne, yayin da mafi yawan Kiristoci suke zaune a kudanci.

A lokacin Najeriya ta kunshi shiyyoyi uku ne wato arewa (wadda Hausawa suke) da kudu maso yamma (yankin kabilar Yarabawa) da kuma kudu masoi gabas (na kabilar Igbo).

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Image caption An kashe Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ne yayin juyin mulkin shekarar 1966

An samu sauyin gwamnati a kasar, bayan juyin mulkin watan Janairun 1966 inda aka kashe Farai Ministan farko na kasar Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa da Firimiyar Jihar Arewa Sir Ahmadu Bello da kuma sauran manyan jagororin arewa da kuma na Yarabawa.

Ana yi wa juyin mulkin kallon wanda 'yan kabilar Igbo suka kitsa saboda yadda ba a kashe shugaban kasa na lokacin ba wato Nnamdi Azikiwe, wanda Igbo ne.

Daga nan ne sai Janar Aguiyi Ironsi ya zama shugaban mulki soji na farko a Najeriya.

Sai dai a watan Yulin shekarar 1966 wasu sojoji daga arewa suka kifar da gwamnatin Ironsi, inda Janar Yakubu Gowon wanda ya fito daga arewa ya zama shugaban mulkin sojan Najeriya.

Juyin mulkin biyu sun kara ruruta wutar kabilanci a kasar.

An rika samun kashe-kashen kabilanci a arewa, inda ake kashe 'yan kabilar Igbo hakazalika an kashe 'yan arewa a matsayin ramuwa a wasu biranen gabashin kasar.

An yi tarurruka tsakanin manyan sojoji da jami'an 'yan sandan kowane yanki da fatan ganin an warware matsalar cikin ruwan sanyi. Sai dai hakan bai yiwu ba.

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Image caption Kimanin mutum miliyan biyu ne suka rasa rayukan a yakin basasar kasar yawanci saboda yunwa
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Image caption Ojukwu ya rasu ne a shekarar 2012

A ranar 30 watan Mayun 1967 ne Gwamnan Soji na Yankin Gabashin Najeriya Laftanal Kanar Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu ya ayyana yankin gabashin kasar a matsayin kasa mai cin gashin kanta wadda ta balle daga Najeriya kuma ya sanya mata suna "Jamhuriyar Biafra".

Wata 30 aka kwashe ana yakin basasar wato daga ranar 6 ga watan Yulin 1967 zuwa ranar 15 ga watan Janairun 1970, inda Kanar Ojukwu ya ce ya mika wuya ga dakarun Najeriya.

Jagoran 'yan awaren ya yi gudun hijira zuwa kasar Ivory Coast, inda ya kwashe lokaci mai tsawo a can kafin gwamnatin Shehu Shagari ta yi masa afuwa.

Ojukwu ya rasu a ranar 1 ga watan Maris na shekarar 2012.

Tun kafin rasuwarsa batun kafa kasar Biafra ya dan kwanta a kasar.

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Image caption Nnamdi Kanu ya kafa kungiyar Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB, wadda take farfado da batun kafa Biafra

Nnamdi Kanu, wani dan kabilar Igbo da ke zaune a Birtaniya ne ya sake dago da wannan batu, yana mai cewa gwamnatin Najeriya ba ta yi wa 'yan kabilar ta su adalci wajen al'amuran da suka shafi ci gaban kasar.

Kanu ya kafa kungiyar Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB, wadda take fafutikar dowa da batun kafa kasar Biafra.

Sai dai wannan fafutika ba ta yi karfi ba sai bayan zaben da aka yi wa Muhammadu Buhari a matsayin shugaban kasar a 2015, abin da ya sa wasu ke zargin da walakin, wato goro-a-miya.

Wannan hasashe ya fito fili ne bayan da sau da dama gidan rediyon da Nnamdi Kanu ya mallaka ba bisa ka'ida ba ya rika aibata shugaban kasar da wasu kabilu da ba Igbo ba, lamarin da ya sa gwamnati ta rufe shi.

Daga nan ne sai gwamnatin Najeriya ta sa aka kama Mista Kanu bisa zargin cin amanar kasa. Sai dai ya musanta yin hakan.

Bayan ya shafe fiye da shekara daya da rabi a tsare, an ba da belinsa a ranar 28 ga watan Afrilun da wuce.

A yanzu dai zabi ya ragewa 'yan kasar, ko dai su ci gaba da zama tare, wanda alamu suka nuna cewa wasu ba sa jin dadin hakan, ko kuma kowa ya kama gabansa - amma da wanne sharadi.

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