'Sayyadina Umar ya taba aika sako Daular Borno'

Hakkin mallakar hoto Zanna Hassan Boguma
Image caption Shehun Borno na yanzu Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai Elkanemi

Wannan makala ce da muka yi bayan da muka bukaci ku aiko tambayoyinku a kan tarihin daular Borno. BBC ta dauki lokaci don samo amsar tambayoyin naku daga wajen masana tarihi na Daular Borno:

Daular Borno tsohuwar Daula ce a Afirka da aka kafa tun kafin karni na 10 wacce ta hada da yankunan da yanzu ke cikin Najeriya da Nijar da Chadi da Kamaru da Sudan har Libya.

Daular Kanem ta El Kanemi ta samo asali ne daga daular Saifuwa.

Masana tarihi sun ce mutanen Saifuwa daga Yemen ne suka fara kafa daular musulunci a Borno, tsawon shekaru 1000 da suka gabata.

Muhammad al-Amin ElKanemi ya kafa Daular Kanem ne a karni na 18, bayan kawar da daular Saifuwa wadanda sarakunanta suka yi mulki shekaru da dama.

BBC Hausa ta duba tarihin Daular Borno ta hanyar tattaunawa da Masana tarihi Alhaji Zanna Hassan Boguma daraktan da ke kula da al'amuran masarautu a Borno, da Farfesa Adam Muhammad Ajiri na sashen nazarin addinin Islama a Jami'ar Maiduguri, wadanda kuma suka yi kokarin amsa wasu tambayoyi da masu saurare suka aiko.

'Asalin kalmar Borno'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Umar Abubakar da Sani Garba da Ishaq Abubakar Kazaure

Rubuce-rubucen masana tarihi sun nuna cewa Kalmar Borno ta samo asali ne daga kalmomin Larabci, "Bahar Nur" wato ma'ana kogin haske.

Kuma saboda kasancewar Borno gidan Al Qur'ani gidan Musulunci ne dalilin ke nan da ya sa sarakunan farko suke kiranta "Bahar Nur", ma'ana kogin haske na musulunci.

Masanin tarihi Alhaji Zanna Hassan Boguma ya ce Ibn khaldun ya ambaci "Bahar Nur" a rubuce-rubucensa na tarihin musulunci a Afirka.

'Tushen Borno'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Umar Musa Dambam daga Bauchi a Najeriya da Buhari Yusuf da Abdulmumin Adamu da Ahmad Adamu Tamadina da Shu'aibu Idris Kofar fada Balangu a jihar Jigawa da Garba Saleh

Tarihi ya nuna cewa Kanuri da suka kafa Borno daga Yemen suka fito, wato tsatson wani sarki da aka yi a Yemen Said Ibn Dhi Yazan da ake kira Malik al-Himyari tun kafin zamanin Annabi SAW, wanda ya kafa dauloli a India da Fasha.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Zanna Boguma/Borno Emirate
Image caption Shehu Umar Kura Ibn Shehu Muhammad Al-Amin Elkanemi sarki na biyu a Daular Elkanemi

Tarihi ya nuna mutanen Ibn Dhi Yazan suna cikin wadanda suka amince su ba sahabban Annabi SAW mafaka bayan hijirarsa daga Makkah zuwa Madinah.

Yemen ne asalin Kanurin da suka kafa mulki a Borno daga daular Saifuwa' a cewar Zanna Hassan Boguma.

'Borno a zamanin Sahabbai'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Jamilu Bagaraje da Magaji Rabiu da Abubakar Umar Usman da Nasir Abubakar Jaja

Daular Borno ta yi zamani da Sahabbai, kuma masanin tarihi Alhaji Zanna Hassan Boguma ya ce daular ta kafu ne tun kafin zuwan Annabi SAW.

A cewarsa tarihi ya nuna sarakunan Borno sun aika da wasika suna neman malamai da za su koyar da addini zuwa ga Amr al-As gwamnan Misra, wanda shi kuma ya tura Uqba Ibn Nafi.

"Sarakunan Borno sun karbi malamai daga wajen Ibn Nafi a zamanin Sayyadina Umar RA."

Image caption Taswirar yankunan Tsohuwar Daular Borno

Amma Zanna Hassan Boguma ya ce wasu litattafan tarihi sun nuna cewa a zamanin Sayyadina Usman RA ne.

Sai dai Farfesa Adam Muhammad Ajiri ya ce Gwamnan daular Maghribi a arewacin Afirka Uqba Ibn Nafi yakinsa har ya kawo Borno a shekarar 666, kuma zamanin Khulafa'ur Rashidun ya fara ne daga 632 har zuwa 660.

Ya ce ba za a iya cewa sun yi zamani da sahabbai ba, amma ana ganin watakila a lokacin akwai daular musulunci a Borno, ko da yake an fi tabbatarwa a zamanin Umayyad daga 661 zuwa 750.

"A lokacin akwai binciken da ya nuna daga shekarar 661 zuwa 670 akwai malamai daga daular Umayyad da suka shigo yankin Maghrib har suka iso Borno," in ji Farfesa Ajiri.

'Saifuwa a Borno da kafuwar ElKanemi'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Abdurahman Salisu Zaria da Abubakar Goni Kolo da Hassan Yarima K/Huguma da Baba Ali Kabir

Saifuwa su ne asalin sarautar Borno, kuma Zanna Boguma ya ce dalilin da ya sa ake kiransu Saifuwa saboda sun fito ne daga Said Ibn Dhi Yazan.

Tarihi ya nuna Saifuwa sun yi sarauta sama da shekara 1000 inda suka yi sarakuna kimanin 113, tun kafin karni na bakwai.

Farfesa Ajiri ya ce bayan Saifuwa sun ci Zaghawa da yaki ne suka kafa daular musulunci a Borno, kuma sun kafa daula ne daga wajajen karni na shida.

Sarakunan farko a daular Saifuwa sun hada da Mai Dugu a shekarar 785 da Mai Fune a shekarar 835 da Mai Aritso a 893, da Mai Katuri a 942 da Mai Ayoma a 961 da Mai Bulu a 1019 da Mai Arki a 1035 da Mai Shu a 1077.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Zanna Hassan Boguma/Borno Emirate
Image caption Fadar Shehu Umar Sanda Kyarimi da Majalisarsa a Dikwa

"Tun zamanin Sarkin Saifuwa Mai Hume Djilme a wajajen 1080 aka fara daula ta musulunci har zuwa sauran sarakunan da aka yi", a cewar Zanna Boguma.

Ya ce, a zamanin daular musulunci ta Saifuwa an yi Sarakuna da suka hada da Mai Dunama Humemi da ya yi mulki daga shekarar 1098 zuwa 1150 da Mai Biri Ibn Dunoma da ya yi mulki daga shekarar 1150 zuwa 1176 da Mai Bikoru Ibn Biri Dunomami da ya yi zamani daga 1176 zuwa 1193.

Mai Ahmad ne Sarkin Saifuwa na karshe, kafin zamanin daular ElKanemi.

Sarakunan Saifuwakafin ElKanemi

  • Mai Ali Gaji Ibn Dunoma 1465-1497
  • Mai Idris Katagarma 1497-1519
  • Mai Muhammed Ibn Idris 1519-1538
  • Mai Ali Dinar Ibn Idris 1538-1538
  • Mai Dunoma Ibn Muhammad 1539-1557
  • Mai Abdallah Ibn Dunoma I 1557-1564
  • Mai Idris Alauma Ibn Ali II 1564-1596
  • Mai Muhammad Ibn Idris II 1596-1617
  • Mai Ibrahim Ibn Idris II 1617-1619
  • Mai Umar Ibn Idris II 1619-1639
  • Mai Ali Ibn Umar 1639-1677
  • Mai Idris Ibn Ali 1677-1696
  • Mai Dunoma II Ibn Ali 1686-1715
  • Mai Hamdu Ibn Ali 1715-1729
  • Mai Muhammad Ibn Hamdu 1729-1744
  • Mai Dunoma III Ibn Muhammad 1744-1747
  • Mai ALi Ibn Hamdu 1747-1792
  • Mai Ahmad III Ibn Ali 1792-1808
  • Mai Dunoma Ibn Ahmad 1808-1811
  • Mai Muhammad Ngeleruma 1811-1814
  • Mai Dunoma na biyar Ibn Ahmad 1814-1817
  • Mai Ali Ibn Ibrahim (Minargema) 1846-1846

Farfesa Ajiri ya ce karshen mulkin Saifuwa ya zo karshe ne a lokacin da Fulani suka kawo hari suka ci garin Gazargamu da yaki tsohon babban birnin Daular Borno.

Goni Mukhtar ne ya yaki Gazargamu, inda ya kori Mai na Saifuwa tare da taimakon Shehu El Kanemi.

ElKanemi ne ya taimaka aka kori Fulani daga Borno.

Farfesa Ajiri ya ce bayan an kashe Goni Muktar a Damaturu ne kuma Mai Ahmad na Saifuwa ya rasu, daga nan El Kanemi ya zama Sarki a wajajen 1810 zuwa 1814.

ElKanemi ya ci gaba da mulki a daular Saifuwa duk da cewa shi ba daga zuriyar Saifuwa ba ne.

Farfesa ya ce ElKanemi ya kafa daular ElKanemi 1814 a birnin Kukawa, wato shekaru sama da 200 a yanzu.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Zanna Hassan Boguma
Image caption 1809 - Kasuwar Kukawa a tsohuwar Borno

"Idan an hada shekaru kusan 800 na Daular Saifuwa da shekaru sama da 200 zai kasance shekarun daular Borno sama da 1000."

Shehu Mohammed el Amin Elkanemi ya fara kafa daula ne a Ngurno tare da ba Mai Dunoma na Tara Lefami matsayin sarki a Kanem daga daular Saifuwa daga 1814 zuwa 1817.

Mai Ibrahim na hudu Ibn Dunoma Lefami ne ya gaji Dunoma a matsayin Sarkin Saifuwa a Kanem.

Bayan El Kanemi ya karbi mulki ne sarautar Borno ta sauya daga Saifuwa zuwa Shehu ElKanemi.

Masanin tarihi Zanna Boguma ya ce lakabin sarautar Borno ya sauya daga "Mai" ma'ana "Sarki" zuwa "Shehu" bayan kafuwar ElKanemi, sabanin sarakunan farko.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Zanna Hassan Boguma/Borno Emirate
Image caption Shehu Abubakar Garbai Kakan Shehun Borno na yanzu Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai

"Bayan ElKanemi ya samu mulkin Borno, daga nan ne ya ce shi ba zai amince a kira shi da "Mai" ba saboda shi malami ne".

"Don haka ya ce zai kira kansa a matsayin Shehu, wato Malami, inda ya hada mulki da malamanta", a cewar Zanna Boguma.

Ya kuma ce: "Wannan ne dalilin da ya sa duk wadanda suka zama sarakuna a Borno ake kiransu Shehu daga gidan El Kanemi."

Shehu Umar Kura ne ya gaji mahaifinsa Shehu Muhammad El Amin ElKanemi a matsayin Sarkin Borno daga 1835 zuwa 1853.

'Sarakunan El Kanemi'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Naziri Aliyu Abubakar da Hussaini Aminu da Mohammed Mala Ngarannam da Abdullahi Bala da Shafi'u Idris Umar da muhammad Ali

Kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata an yi shekaru da dama da kafuwar Daular Borno kafin zuwan ElKanemi. Sarakunan Borno zamanin daular Elkanemi kafin Rabeh ya ci Borno da yaki sun hada da:

  • Shehu Mohammed Al-Amin Elkanemi 1814-1846
  • Shehu Umar Kura Dan Shehu Mohammed Elkanemi 1835-1853
  • Shehu Abdul Rahman Ibn Muhammad Elkanemi 1853-1854
  • Shehu Umar Kura Ibn Muhammad Elkanemi 1854-1880
  • Shehu Bukar Zarami Kura Ibn Umar 1880-1884
  • Shehu Ibrahim Ibn Umar 1884-1885
  • Shehu Hashimi Ibn Umar 1885-1893
  • Shehu Kyari Ibn Bukar Zarami 1893-1894
  • Shehu Sanda Limananbe Wuduroma Ibn Bukar Zarami 1894-?

Shehu Umar Kura na cikin Sarakunan Borno da suka fi dadewa a mulki.

Sai Shehu Sanda Kyari wanda ya shafe shekara kusan 40 yana mulki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Zanna Bugoma/Borno Emirate
Image caption Daular Borno ta yi zama a karkashin turawan Birtaniya da Jamus

Shehu Mustapha Umar El Kanemi shi ma sarki ne da ya dade inda ya yi shekara 34 yana mulki.

Shehu Garbai kakan Shehu na yanzu ma ya dade inda ya yi shekara 24 yana mulki.

'Wanene Rabeh?'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Sani Ali da Nura Bala da ahmad Adam Bagas Minna da Adam Musa Ladan Fulata

Rabeh Zubair Ibn Fadlallah mutum ne da ya taso daga Sudan, wanda ke sana'ar fataucin bayi, inda yake saye ya kuma sayar da bayi.

Masanin tarihi Zanna Boguma ya ce fataucin bayi ne dalilin da ya sa Rabeh ya yaki Borno .

A 1893 ne Rabeh ya kawo wa Borno hari.

"Rabeh Zubair Ibn Fadlallah ne ya rushe tsohuwar daular Borno bayan ya kaddamar da yaki kuma ya samu galabar kwace iko ya mayar da Dikwa a matsayin babban birnin daularsa".

Hakkin mallakar hoto BBC/Zanna Hassan Boguma
Image caption Sarakunan Borno bayan kashe Rabeh

Rabeh ya kashe sarakunan Borno guda biyu, Shehu Kyarimi da Shehu Sanda Wudoroma.

A 1900 sojojin Faransa na mulkin mallaka suka kashe Rabeh bayan ya yi mulki a shekaru bakwai da watanni bakwai da kwanaki bakwai a Borno.

Bayan sun kashe Rabeh ne suka aza Shehu Sanda Kura daga zuriyar Elkanemi a matsayin Shehun Borno a Dikwa a 1900.

A 1901 suka tube shi suka kuma daura dan uwansa Umar Abubakar Garbai, kakan Shehun Borno na yanzu.

Lokacin Turawan mulkin Mallaka, tsohuwar Masarautar Borno ta rabu gida biyu inda Dikwa ta koma karkashin ikon turawan mulkin mallaka na Jamus, bisa wata yarjejeniya tsakanin turawan Faransa da Birtaniya da kuma Jamus na mulkin mallaka.

Daga baya Abubakar Garbai ya koma Sarkin Borno a yankin da turawan Birtaniya ke iko.

A shekarar 1902 ya fara yin hijira zuwa Monguno kafin daga baya ya koma Maiduguri.

Lokacin da Dikwa ta koma karkashin ikon Birtaniya, an samu Shehu guda biyu, Shehun Borno a Maiduguri da kuma Shehun Dikwa.

'Tsarin sarautar Borno'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Aminudden Ali Dan Hassan

An kafa masarautar Borno da al'adunta ne a kan tsari na musulunci.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Hassan Zanna Bugoma
Image caption Shehu Umar Ibn Abubakar Garbai Elkanemi mahaifin Shehun Borno na yanzu

Masanin tarihi Zanna Boguma ya ce a zamanin farko na El Kanemi an bi tsari ne irin na khalifancin Manzo SAW.

Ya ce El Kanemi yana da mashawarta guda hudu wadanda kuma suka kasance kamar majalisar Koli.

"Mutanen sun hada da Malam Muhammed Terab da Malam Ahmad Gonimi da Ibrahim Wadaima da Aji Sudani wadanda suka taimaka masa wajen shinfida tsari na shari'a da adalci a Borno".

Amma ya ce bisa tsari na al'ada Borno tana da tsarin sarautu 3,333, wadanda suka kunshi na 'ya'yan gidan sarki da fadawa da bayi da na Malamai.

Sannan akwai sarautu na sana'o'i kamar na wanzanci da kira da rini.

Amma sarautun da suke da girma da kima sun kai 313.

'Yadda ake zaben Sarki a Borno'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Aminudden Ali Dan Hassan

Idan Sarki ya rasu, bayan an yi jana'izarsa za a sanar da hukuma a rubuce cewa Sarki ya rasu.

Daga nan wadanda ke da alhakin zaben sabon Sarki za su zauna su yi shawara sannan su fitar da sunaye daga gidajen saraurar Borno.

Idan sun zabi sabon sarki za su mika wa gwamnati ta sanar.

"Masu zaben sabon Sarki guda bakwai ne da suka hada da Shettima Kanuribe da Shettima Kuburibe da Yarima da Kaigama da Mallam Terab" a cewar Zannah Boguma.

'Ko Daular Usmaniya ta yaki Daular Borno?'

Tambaya ce da muka samu daga Abdulmajid Abubakar da Muhammd Yusuf da Umar Abubakar Zamfara da Mudassiru Yusuf S/Fada da Kamal Y Iyantama da Ahmed Rufa'i Abdullahi da Musa Yayan Baba

Jihadin Shehu Usman Danfodio ya faru ne a 1804, inda ya kafa tuta da daulolinsa a kasashen Hausa a 1805.

Danfodio bai yi niyyar ya yaki Borno ba, amma Fulani da suke zaune a Borno da ake kira Fulata Borno karkashin wani babban malami Goni Mukhtar suka kaddamar da yaki.

Malam Goni Muktar ya rubutawa Danfodio wasika yana son a ba shi tuta, yana ganin Borno na bukatar a kaddamar da yaki na jihadi saboda a ganinsa akwai wasu abubuwan da ake yi na al'adu.

Danfodio ya amince da bukatarsa aka yaki Borno.

"Amma bayan yakin, El Kanemi ya rubutawa Danfodio da takarda cewa bai kamata a yaki Borno ba domin kasa ce ta musulunci da sarakunanta", a cewar Zanna Boguma.

Ya kara da cewa akwai rubutun wasikar El Kanemi zuwa ga Danfodio a cikin litaffin Infakul Maisuri na Muhammadu Bello Danfodio.

"A cikin wasikar El kanemi ya nuna cewa yakin da aka kaddamar ba jihadi ba ne illa neman mulki da son duniya".

"Daga baya Danfodio da El Kanemi sun dawo sun fahimci juna inda suka amince kuma suka tabbatar da cewa babu abin da ke tsakaninsu illa aminci da 'yan uwantaka ta addinin musulunci".

Zanna Boguma ya ce Borno ba ta taba zama a karkashin tutar daular Usmaniya ba domin Borno tana da tarihi na musulunci da malamanta sama da shekara 1000 kafin kafuwar daular Usmaniya a Sokoto.

"Hakan ya sanya da aka yi bikin cika shekaru 200 da kafuwar Daular Usman Danfodio muka ce bai shafe mu ba, sai mu muka yi bikin shekaru 1000 da kafuwar daular musulunci ta Borno".

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