Ko kun san dabbar da ta fi yawan hayayyafa a duniya

Breeding Animals
Image caption Ɗan adam zai iya haihuwar tsirarun 'ya'ya ne a iyakar rayuwarsa, amma wasu dabbobi gungu guda suke haifa

An tabbatar da yawan hayayyafar zomaye tsawon zamani a cikin dabbobi masu shayarwa, don haka ake sha'awarsu saboda ɗumbin 'ya'yan da suke haihuwa.

Haɗuwar mace da namijin zomo su yi barbara a kowanne irin muhalli ne yake ba su wannan dama; suna fara samun sha'awar barbara tun daga wata 3 zuwa 4, kuma macen na iya sake ɗaukar ciki bayan ta haihu.

Wannan na nuni da cewa, zomaye na iya haihuwar 'ya'ya masu tarin yawa, kimanin jarirai bakwai a haihuwa guda.

Amma yanayin ne haƙiƙanin jigon rayuwarsu.

A Turai, zomaye na haihuwa ne a lokacin bazara kawai, abin da ke takaita yawan 'ya'yan da suke hayayyafa.

Sai dai a Austiraliya da New Zealand, inda ake kiwata zomayen Turai, suna hayayyafa ne a ɗaukacin shekara, a wasu wuraren ma har 'ya'ya bakwai suke bazawa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Stephen Dalton/naturepl.com)
Image caption Matasan ɓerayen gida

A kowace bazara, yawan tular dabbobi da kuma igiyar ruwa na sauya yanayi zuwa launin rawaya saboda ɗumbin ƙwayayen da aka nasa.

Misali, a Austiraliya a kan yi fama da annobar ɓeraye, samun ɗumbin abinci da yanayi mai kyau na bai wa jaɓa damar hayayyafar 'ya'ya masu yawa a duk wata shida, wato dai suna haihuwa bayan kowanne wata.

Ana samun fantsamar ɓeraye har 2,700 a duk kadada ɗaya, a wuraren da ake adana hatsi. Idan ana zaton an zuzuta wannan dadi, a yi la'akari da mafi yawan barbarar da waɗannan dabbobi ke yi a doron duniya.

"Ba na jin cewa akwai wanda ya taba ƙididdige yawan ƙwayaye da ɗaidaiku ke nasawa a tsandauri, in ji Dokta Mary Hagerdam ta Cibiyar kimiyyar kula da halittu, wadda ta jagoranci binciken nasa ƙwayayen haihuwa a tsandaurin Hawaii.

"Mafi yawan mutane na kwatanta yawan ƙwayayen da ake nasawa, al'amarin da ke nuni da cewa duk nau'in dabba guda na nasa miliyoyin ƙwai a tsandauri."

Hakkin mallakar hoto Jurgen Freund/naturepl.com
Image caption Corals jinsin dabbobin teku ne da suke nasa ƙwai ta hanyar yin tula (Credit. Jurgen Freund/naturepl.com)

Abin da ake fara gani shi ne kuzarin barbarar namiji (dabba), wanda a gaskiya yana da matuƙar hatsari.

Miliyoyin ƙwai da ake gani da ɗumbin yawa, sai dai lokaci ba ya bayar da dama (ta hayayyafa) ga dabbobin ruwa.

"Dabbobin ruwa na da iyakar adadin hayayyafarsu," inji Hagedom. "Mafi yawan dabbobin ruwa, suna samar da aure ne (mace da namiji) cikin kwana biyu a kowace shekara.

Saura da me, mafi yawan dabbobin da suka tasa mutuwa suke. "duk da cewa dabbobin ruwa na hayayyafa da dama, abin da suke haifa daidai yake da na sauran gungun dabbobi; wato ɗaya ko biyu a cikin 'ya'yan da aka haifa ne ke girma, su kai gaci a rayuwa," inji Hagedom.

Don haka ake ganin ƙaruwar sha'awar barbara ke tattare da hatsari. Hagedom ta yi gargaɗin cewa, washewar muhalli na tabbatar da amfanin juna tsakanin dabbobin ruwa da tsirran ruwa, al'amarin da ke da ɗumbin tasiri a kan waɗanda za a haifa nan gaba.

A wani sashen teku, akwai manyan dabbobi masu ninƙaya, waɗanda a baya Kundin adana abubuwan tarihin duniya na Guiness World Record ya bayyana su a matsayin dabbobi mafi hayayyafa: ƙaton kifin teku.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Doug Allan/naturepl.com
Image caption Wani jibgegen kifin Mola mola (Credit. Doug Allan/naturepl.com)

Ƙaton kifin teku (Mola mola) yana nasa miliyoyin ƙwai (Hoto Franco Banfi/maturepl.com <http://maturepl.com>)

Laƙabin harshen Latin "Mola mola" na nufin "dutsen niƙa," kuma ya dace da mulmulallen kifin mai launi toka da ke da tsawon kafa 10 (mita 3) yana da nauyin ton 2.

Ban-sha'awarsa ta sa ake masa lakabin "ja-gaban ninƙaya" yana da girman jiki da kananan ƙayoyi, kuma ya fi watayawa cikin hasken rana a ƙarƙashin teku.

Mai jegon makeken kifin nan da ake kira Sunfish tuni tana ɗauke da ɗan tayin wani kifin, girmansa kuma ya kai kimanin 'yar tsana.

Jibgegiyar kifanyar ta ciri tuta wajen saka kwai. Tana iya nasa akalla ƙwai miliyan 300 cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci a ruwa.

A tekun ƙasar Japan, an yi hasashen nasa ƙwansu a tsakanin watan Agusta zuwa Oktoba, al'amarin da ke nuni da cewa suna nasa ɗumbin qwayaye.

"Jibgege kifin da ya girma yakan ƙebe a sarari cikin teku, samun abokiyar barbara wani ƙalubale ne, ta yadda nasa ɗumbin qwayaye zai ba da damar ƙyanƙyashe ɗumbin maza," a cewar Dokta David Sims na ƙungiyar ƙwararrun masu nazarin rayuwar dabbobin ruwa da ke Plymouth a Birtaniya.

Dangane da dabobin ruwa, ƙwayayensu kaɗan ne za su bunƙasa har su girma - shi ya sa ma tekunan duniya ba su cika da ɗumbin maka-makan kifaye ba, sabanin yadda ake zato.

"Muna jin cewa suna saka ɗumbin ƙwayaye, don haka damar ƙyanƙyashe su da kuma rayuwar ɗan tayi ta yi ƙaranci," a cewar Sims.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Franco Banfi/naturepl.com
Image caption Jibgegen kifin da ake kira Mola mola na nasa miliyoyin ƙwai a lokaci guda (Credit Franco Banfi/naturepl.com)

Idan muna son gano haƙiƙanin yawan hayayyafarsu, sai mu dubi ƙananan dabbobi, musammam ma dai ƙwari. Ƙwarin kabeji, sanannu ne ga kowanne ma'aikacin lambu

A lokacin bazara, matansu sukan ninka daga 5 zuwa 10 a rana. Wannan al'amari yana ci gaba har zuwa lokacin zafi da 'ya'yansu mata za su yi fuka-fuki, ta yadda za su taimaka wajen yaɗa zuri'arsu.

Kowane ƙwaro guda zai iya nasa ƙwayayen zuri'arsa, da za su baibaye muhallin kwarin a faɗin duniya, wanda tsawonsa ya kai kilomita 149 a shekara.

A nazarin na'urar ganin 'yan mitsi-mitsin halittu, tamatar ƙwaron da ta haihu tana kuma ɗauke da cikin ɗan tayi. Da kaka, matan sukan haifi maza, waɗanda za su bayar da damar yin barbara, da samar da lafiyayyun ƙwayayen halitta.

"Ɗaiɗaikun ƙwari babu wani sabon abu a tare da su, inda suke haihuwar 'ya'ya 50 ko fiye. Mafi yawan kwarin suna nasa kwayaye da yawa," a cewar Dokta Richard Harrington, Shugaban Cibiyar binciken kwari ta Rothamsted.

"Sai dai akan tattara wannan a mafi karancin lokaci - kimanin mako ko ƙasa da haka, a yanayi mai kyau, akwai yiwuwar su kara yawan hayayyafa."

Cikin kyakkyawan yanayi, Harrington ya kiyasta cewa ƙwaro guda na iya nasa kwayayen da za su cika muhallin ƙwarin mai tsawon kilomita 149 cikin shekara. Sai dai a gaskiya suna yawan mutuwa, saboda tsuntsaye na cin irin waɗannan kwari da sauran nau'o'in tsuntsaye.

Amma akwai wasu nau'o'in ƙwarin da ke ta hayayyafa iya tsawon rayuwarsu. Sarauniyar ƙwari a masarauta tana da 'yan aiki (ma'aikata), kuma ta yiwu su ne masu yawan hayayyafa ba tare da tangarda ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Visuals Unlimited/naturepl.com
Image caption Garar Argentina wadda a cikinsu ake samun ma'aikata da bahago da badame (Credit. Visuals Unlimited/naturepl.com)

Nau''o'in ƙwarin Argentina (Linepithema humile) sun hada da ma'aikaci da bahago da sarauniya da badame

Shugabancin dandazon ƙwarin Afirka ja-gabansu ka iya samar da aƙalla ƙwayaye miliyan 3 zuwa 4 a wata. Wannan na iya zama kimar abin da aka tabbbatar.

"Sai dai yana da matukar muhimmanci a lura cewa sarauniya ta fi samar da qwayaye, sauran nau'o'in ba su takaita ga sarauniya guda ba, ta yadda za su samu ɗumbin nasarar yaɗuwa a rukunoninsu," a cewar Thomas O'Shea-Wheller<http://www.bristol.ac.uk/biology/people/thomas-a-oshea-wheller/index.html> na Jami'ar Bristol da ke Birtaniya.

Mafi yawan gungun ƙwarin, tsawon wurin da sukan taru ya kai kilomita dubu shida (6,000) ko mil 3,700 a gabar tekun Mediteranean. Tamkar jinsin ɓerayen Austiraliya da New Zealand, an ɗauke su a matsayin maɓarnata.

A wani juyin kuwa, Zomayen Turai da ke ƙasar Spain an dauke su a matsayin wadanda "ke fuskantar barazana, saboda yaduwar cututtuka da rashin muhalli da ayyukan mafarauta. Akwai yiwuwar a samu sauyi tamkar yadda ake "hayayyafar ƙwari."