Ka san dalilan da suka sa haihuwa ke da wuya da hadari?

Miji na rarrashin matsar da za ta haihu Hakkin mallakar hoto Blend Images/Alamy
Image caption Haihuwa na da matukar azaba

Da dadewa ana ganin cewa haihuwa tana bayar da wahala da kuma jefa rayuwar mata cikin hadari saboda muna tafiya ne a mike, amma kuma wani sabon nazari ya nuna cewa ga alama ba wannan ba ne kadai.

Colin Barras ta bincika

Haihuwa na iya daukar dogon lokaci kuma ciki tsananin zafi. Za kuma ta iya kasancewa mai hadarin gaske. Hukumar kula da lafiya ta duniya ta yi kiyasin cewa kusan mata 830 ne suka mutuwa kullum sakamakon matsalolin ciki da haihuwa.

Kuma wannan kiyasin ragin kashi 44 cikin dari ne a kan alkaluman da ake da su a shekarar 1990. Jonathan Wells wanda ya karanci fannin cin abincin yara a jami'ar Landan a Birtaniya, ya ce alkaluman suna tayar da hankali.

Ya ce bai dace ba matuka a ce duk wata uwa mai shayarwa (har da dabbobi) ta rika samun kanta a wannan matsala saboda haihuwa kawai.

To idan haka ne me ya sa haihuwa take da hadari ga mutane? Kuma akwai abin da za mu yi domin rage wannan mace-mace?

Hakkin mallakar hoto P. Plailly/E. Daynes/Science Photo Library
Image caption Yawancin mutanen zamanin da suna tafiya ne a mike da kafa biyu

Masana kimiyya sun fara tunani a kan matsalar haihuwa tun a tsakiyar karni na 20. Bayan dan wani lokaci sai suka kawo bayanin dalilin da suke ganin yake faruwa.

Suka ce matsalar ta fara ne tun daga mutanen farko (the hominins).

Kashin kwarangal na irin halittun farko da aka gano ya zuwa yanzu ya kai kusan shekara miliyan bakwai. Kashin na irin dabbobi ko halittun farko ne da ba su da kamannin halitta irin tamu in ban da kadan ko ma dai daya kawai.

Wasu masu binciken sun ce ko a wannan lokacin mutanen farkon na lokacin suna tafiya ne a mike a kan kafa biyu.

Kafin halitta ta iya tafiya a kan kafa biyu yadda ya kamata, dole ne sai an sake tsarin yadda kwarangwal din halittar ko mutumin yake, wanda hakan zai sauya fasalin kashin kofar haihuwa ko kugun mace.

To wannan ne ya sa a wancan lokacin na zamanin da masu binciken suka ce suna ganin kila sai jariri ya juya a cikin uwa kafin ya iya samun fitowa ta kofar haihuwa wato tsakiyar wanna kashi na kugu. Wannan shi zai sa a ce haihuwa ta yi wahala kwarai fiye da yadda take a da, kafin a samu sauyin kwarangwal din.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Science Photo Library/Alamy
Image caption Mata da dama suna amfani da maganin rage radadi a lokacin nakuda

Kimanin shekara miliyan biyu da ta wuce sai kakanninmu na wannan lokaci suka fara kara wani sauyin na yadda suke. Halittarsu ta kamannin biri ta fara sauyawa, kamar gajeren jiki, da dogayen hannu da kuma karamar kwakwalwa ko kai.

Sai suka fara juyawa zuwa irin halitta ta mutane, misali jiki ya fara tsawo, hannuwa gajeru da kuma babbar kwakwalwa ko kai, to wannan babban kai sai ya kasance matsala ga mata wurin haihuwa domin sai an ci wuya kai ya wuce wannan kofa ta tsakiyar kugun mace.

Daga nan ne haihuwa ta zama mai ciwo da kuma hadari abin da ya kasance har zuwa yau. Kuma a shekarar 1960 masanin tarihin al'ada da halayyar dan adam Sherwood Washburn ya ba wa matsalar suna ( obstetrical dilemma ), wadda kuma har yau masana kimiyya da dama na ganin ta yi cikakken bayanin matsalar haihuwa.

Amma kuma ba duka aka taru aka zama daya ba, domin wasu masanan da suka hada da Wells sun dawo daga rakiyar wannan bayani. A shekara biyar da ta wuce Wells da sauran masu bincike da dama suka fara sukan wannan bayani.

Suna ganin yadda Washburn ya bayyana matsalar abin ya fi karfin haka, sun ganin akwai wasu abubuwa da dama da ke taimaka wa wajen samun matsalar haihuwa.

Holly Dunsworth ta Jami'ar Rhode Island a Kingston ta shiga cikin wannan muhawara (obstetric dilemma), a lokacin tana karatun digirinta na farko.

Ta ce da farko tana ganin wannan bayani ko dalili da Washburn ya bayar yana da armashi, domin har ta fara neman shedun da za ta kara karfafa matsayar, amma kwatsam sai abubuwa suka sauya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto blickwinkel/Alamy
Image caption 'Ya'yan wasu dabbobin suna tashi su yi tafiya tun daga haihuwa

Matsalar ta ta'allaka ne ga hasashen da Washburn ya yi a kasidar da ya rubuta, inda ya ce an samu shawo kan matsalar ta haihuwa ta hanyar haifar jarirai kafin su girma a ciki in ji Wells.

Washburn ya nuna cewa mutum ya samu hanyar magance wannan matsala ta hanyar rage tsawon lokacin renon ciki, inda ake ahihuwar jarirai tun kafin su kosa, ta yadda jariri zai fito yana dan karami da kansa ko kwakwalwarsa tana danya.

Wannan dalilin zai sa ka fahimci bayanin Washburn, ganin cewa yadda aka saba haihuwa kamar a kan birrai ko sauran halittu shi ne, sai jariri ya kosa domin ciki yana dadewa. Amma Dunsworth ta ce lamarin ba haka yake ba. Domin muna da jarirai manya kuma ciki yana dadewa fiye da yadda muke tsammani in ji ta.

Yadda ciki yake na haihuwar dan'adam yana dadewa, domin a ka'ida yakan kai mako 38 zuwa 40, yayin da cikin biri yake kai mako 32, su kuwa sauran jinsin birrai kamar gwaggon biri yakan kai mako 37.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Martin Valigursky/Alamy
Image caption Wani jariri da aka fitar da tiyata

Kamar yadda Dunsworth da abokan bincikenta suka bayyana a wata kasida a shekara 2012, lamarin haka yake ko da an matsalar da tsawon lokacin goyon cikin ta yadda zai dace da nauyin jikin jaririn da mahaifiyar.

Cikin mace (mutum) yana kaiwa mako 37 wanda hakan ya fi tsawon lokacin na biranya da ta kai girman mu.

Haka kuma abin yake ga girman kwakwalwa ko kan jariri. Mata suna haihuwar jariran da suke da kai babba fiye da yadda za mu yi tsammanin biranyar da take da girman jiki a ce ta haifi jaririn yadda take haihuwa. Wannan na nufin wani muhimmin tsagi na hasashen Washburn ba daidai yake ba. Akwai ma wasu matsaloli da hasashen bayan wannan.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Visuals Unlimited/naturepl.com
Image caption Kashin kugun namiji a hagu na mace a dama

Muhimmi daga cikin bayanin Washburn shi ne cewa girma da yadda siffar kashin kofar haihuwa ta tsakiyar kugun mace suke sun samu tankarda saboda tafiya da muke a tsaye kyam a kan kafa biyu. Wanda kuma idan da tsarin juyin halitta zai magance matsalar haihuwa, ya sa kugun mace ya kara fadi da kuma kara girman kofar haihuwar to da ya yi haka ya zuwa yanzu.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Cultura Creative RF/Alamy
Image caption Yadda dan tayi yake a ciki

Helen Kurki ta Jami'ar Victoria a Columbia ta Canada ta sake gano wasu matsalolin a game da wancan hasashe (obstetric dilemma), inda a 2015 ta ce kofar kashin haihuwa ta bambanta a girma da siffa daga mace zuwa mace. Amma kuma yawancin lokaci kofar haihuwar ta isa jariri ya wuce in ji ta

A shekara ta 2012 Wells da abokan aikinsa sun dubi tarihin yadda haihuwa take a zamanin da can, inda suka ayyana cewa a yawancin zamanin rayuwar dan'adam haihuwa ta iya kasancewa da sauki sosai. Sun kuwa yi hakan ne duk da cewa abu ne mai wuya a iya samun tarihin wancan zamani.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Jose Antonio Penas/Science Photo Library
Image caption Noma ya sauya yadda kirar jikinmu take

Ana ganin sauyin tsarin rayuwa inda mutum ya san ya yi noma shi ne kila ya haifar da matsalar da ta kawo wahalar haihuwa sosai.

'yan dubban shekaru da suka wuce da mutane suka fara noma, daga nan aka fara ganin kwarangwal din jarirai a wasu wuraren da ake samun kayan tarihi irin na mutanen da.

Idan har a lokacin da aka fara noma ne aka fara samun matsalar mutuwa a lokacin haihuwa to ba shakka akwai wasu dalilai da suka sa hakan. Misali noma ya sa jikinmu ya kara sauyawa daga yadda yake.

Misali manoman farko sun fara zama a wurin da suke tattaruwa wuri daya, wanda hakan zai iya haifar da yaduwar cutuka, kuma abu ne mai sauki cutuka su fi kama sabbin haihuwa.

Akwai wani bambanci da masu hako kayan tarihi na kasa suka gano a kan siffar jikin manoman farko da mutanen zamanin da ba a fara noma ba.

Manoman gajeru ne idan aka kwatanta su da kakanninsu da ba sa noma, kila ana ganin saboda su manoman abincinsu ba ya dauke da kayan gina jiki irin na wadancan kakanni mafarauta.

To idan aka yi la'akari da jikin matan wancan zamani da aka fara noma za a ga cewa kamar a yanzu, yanayin gajartar mace yanayin girman kashin kugunta. Wati kenan karkata da mutum ya yi zuwa noma ya haifar da matsalar wahalar haihuwa ga mata.

Bayan wannan kuma yanayin abincin da manoma suke ci wanda ya kunshi yawanci abinci mai sa kiba (carbohydrate) ya sa dan tayin da mace take dauke da shi a cikinta ya yi jiki, abin da zai zamar mata matsala wurin haihuwa.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Blend Images/Alamy
Image caption Ciki na sa mata gajiya sosai

Wells ya ce, za a iya yin hasashen cewa matsayin ingancin abincin da mace take samu zai iya kasancewa yana da alaka da yawan mutuwa a sanadin haihuwa da kuma matsalar haihuwar. Hakan na nuna cewa idan aka samu ci gaba a ingancin abincin da mata masu haihuwa suke ci za a iya samun raguwar mutuwa a sanadin haihuwa.

A watan Mayu na 2016 wani nazari da Marcia Ponce de León da Christoph Zollikofer a Jami'ar Zurich ta Switzerland suka jagoranta, inda suka yi nazari a kan kugun mutane 275 maza da mata na rukunin shekaru daban-daban, sun bayyana cewa kugun mace yana sauyawa a lokacin rayuwarta.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Tetra Images/Alamy
Image caption Bayan wuyar haihuwar mace na samun jariri

Nazarin ya nuna cewa a lokacin da mace take kan budurcinta wato ganiyar haihuwa kugunta daidai yake da haihuwa, amma idan ta kai shekara 40 sai ya fara raguwa, inda haihuwa ke zamar mata da matsala, a lokacin da take shirin fita daga lokacin haihuwa.

Idan kana son karanta wanna a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan The real reasons why childbirth is so painful and dangerous