Mulkin Soji a Najeriya

Janar Aguyi Ironsi
Image caption Janar Aguyi Ironsi

A ranar 15 ga watan Jainairu, 1966: A kokarinsu na kawo karshen rigingimun siyasar da ake tayi tsakanin jama'a a yankunan Najerira a ranar juma'a 15 ga wata Janairu, wasu sojoji yawancinsu 'ya kabilar Ibo a karkashin jagorancin Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu suka yi juyin mulki, inda aka kashe Sir Ahmadu Bello da Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa da Sameul Ladoke Akintola da ministan kudi Festus Okotie-Eboh, a wannan lokacin Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe na jiyya a kasar waje.

A ranar 16 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1966 sojojin suka nada Manjo janar Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi a matsayin shugaban mulkin sojin Najeriya na farko.

Duk da kisan shugabannin da sojojin suka yi a lokacin juyin mulkin, gwamnatin Aguiyi-Ironsi ta yi alkawarin, kawo karshen rikice rikicen da ake a kasar da kawo ci gaban kasa da kawar da cin hanci da ma mayar da muki ga hannun farar hula, lamarin da ya sa jama'a musamman matasa a wannan lokaci bashi goyan baya.

Janar Yakubu Gowon

Wasu sojojin musamman wadanda suka fito daga arewacin Najeriyar, sun yi wa Aguiyi Ironsi juyin mulki.

Bayan juyin mulkin, sojojin sun nada Janar Yakubu Gowon a matsayin sabon shugaban mulkin sojin kasar.

Image caption Janar Yakubu Gowon

Janar Yakubu Gowon ya yi kokarin kawo zaman lafiya tsakanin gwamnatinsa da 'yan siyasa da kuma sarakunan gargajiya tare da cin alwashin mayar da kasar ga hannun farar hula.

A ranar 27 ga watan Mayu na shekarar 1967 janar Gowon ya kasa yankuna hudu na Najeriya zuwa jahohi 12 wadanda aka nada gwamnoni su shugabancesu.

Ko da yake shugaban yankin gabashin Najeriya Chukwuemeka Ojukwu bai amince da raba yankunan ba, inda yace yankin zai balle ya zama jamhuriya mai cin gashin kai da ya kira Biafra, sai dai kuma ba'a yarda da hakan ba abinda ya jawo yakin basasa tsakanin yankin Biafra da sauran yankunan Najeriya.

An kwashe shekaru uku ana yakin da ya yi sanadiyyar mutuwar jama'a da dama a Najeriya musamman a yankin Biafran.

Gwamnatin tarayya a wannan lokacin ta fito da hanyoyin da suka tilastawa shugabannin 'yan tawayen yankin mika wuya.

Ranar 15 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1970, shugabannin rundunar 'yan tawayen Biafran sun amince da sharudan da gwamnatin janar Yakubu Gowon ta gindaya musu na ajiye makamai.

Janar Gowon ya yi fice ta fannin shugabanci a lokacinsa kuma yana daga cikin shugabannin da suka kafa kungiyar raya tattalin kashen Afirka ta ECOWAS.

Jama'da dama na ganin janar Yakubu Gowon bai cika alkawarin da ya dauka ba na mayar da Najeriya bisa turbar demokradiyya, don haka ran 29 ga watan Yulin shekarar 1975 sojoji suka kifar da gwamnatinsa, a lokacin da yake halartar taron kungiyar kasashen Afirka wato OAU a Kampala babban birnin kasar Uganda.

Janar Murtala Ramat Mohammed

Image caption Janar Murtala Mohammed

Yuli 1975: Bayan da janar Yakubu Gowon ya gaza mayar da Najeria bisa mulkin farar hula, a ranar 29 ga watan Yulin shekarar 1975 sojoji suka yi masa juyin mulki, inda aka nada janar Murtala Ramat Muhammed a matsayin shugaban kasa, shi kuma Birgediya Olusegun Obasanjo a wancan lokaci aka nada a matsayin babban hafsa a fadar shugaban kasa da helkwatar soji sai Laftanal janar T.Y. Danjuma a matsayin hafsan rundunar sojin kasa.

Da hawansa janar Murtala ya yi alkawarin ci gaba da tsarin mulkin dake da shugaba da mataimakinsa da bin doka tare da kare hakkin bil'adama tare da ba jama'a damar fitowa a dama dasu. A lokacin mulkin janar Murtala ne aka fara shirin mayar da fadar gwamnatin Najeriya daga Lagos zuwa Abuja, sai dai kuma matsalar tattalin arzikin da kasar ta shiga a wannan lokacin yasa maganar ta ja baya.

Daya daga cikin ayyukan da janar Murtala ya yi a lokacin mulkinsa shi ne na yin watsi da sakamakon kidayar jama'a da akai a shekarar 1973, wanda aka ce an yi magudi domin a kyautatawa Arawacin kasar ta hanyar kara musu yawan jama'a.

Bayan hawansa mulki, janar Murtala ya sauke manyan jami'an gwamnatin tarayya da na jahohi wadanda suka yi aiki a gwamnatin janar Yakubu Gowon, sama da ma'aikata dubu 10 ne wannan lamarin ya shafa, inda aka gurfanarda wasunsu bisa zargin cin hanci.

Janar Murtala Ramat Muhammed ya kirkiro da sabbin jahohi, kuma ya bayar da sanarwar sabon tsarin shirin mika mulki ga farar hula ranar 1 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1979.

Sai dai kuma janar Murtala bai kai ga ganin hakan ba bayanda a ranar juma'a 13 ga watan Fabrerun shekarar 1976 wasu sojoji karkashin jagorancin Laftanal Kanal Buka Sukar Dimka suka yi yunkurin juyin mulki, inda sojojin suka yiwa motarsa lugudan wuta a lokacin da yake tafiya aiki inda nan take ya rasa ransa. Jama'a da dama sun hallaka a yunkurin juyin mulkin da bai yi nasara ba.

Olusegun Obasanjo

Image caption Janar Olusegun Obasanjo

Laftanar janar Olusegun Obasanjo na daga cikin mutanan da sojojinda suka yi yunkurin kifar da gwamnatin janar Murtala Ramat Muhammed suka yi niyyar kashewa, sai dai kuma da yake kwanansa na gaba shi ya tsallake rijiya da baya, inda suka harbe wani soji suna tunanin shi ne. Kokarin da Obasanjo ya yi tare da T.Y Danjuma na samar da tsaro sosai a Legas a wannan lokacin yasa juyin mulkin bai yi nasara ba.

Bayan kashe janar Murtala Ramat Muhammed, an rantsarda Obasanjo a matsayin shugaban mulkin Najeriya a wajen wani taro da aka yi a Lagas.

Obasanjo ya ci alwashin ci gaba da ayyukan marigayi janar Murtala na mika mulki ga fararen hula a shekarar 1979, da kuma ayukan ci gaban al'umma.

Janar Olusegun Mathew Okikiola Aremu Obasanjo shi ne cikakken sunansa kuma ya kasance shugaban Najeriya na biyar a karkashin mulkin soji tun bayanda kasar ta samu yancin kai daga turawa mulkin mallaka.