Yakin Basasar Najeriya

Sojojin Biafra
Image caption Sojojin Biafra

Najeriya kasa ce mai al'adu da addinai da ma kabilu daban daban da suka haura 200.

Manya a cikinsu su ne Hausa, Ibo da Yoruba, kuma kowannensu na da tsarin yadda yake tafiyar da mulkin jama'arsa.

Bayan da aka raba kasar zuwa yankuna uku wato Hausa da Fulani a yankin arewa, Ibo a yankin gabashi da Yarabawa a yankin yamma, kuma arewa ta fi kowanne yankin yawa da kuma girma, abinda sauran yankunan suka yi ta kokawa a kai.

A shekarun 1940 zuwa 1950 jam'iyyun da aka kafa domin yakin kwatar wa Najeriya 'yancin kai wato NPC a arewa, NCNC ta kabilar Ibo, da AG ta Yarabawa, sun yi ta gwagarmaya musamman ma dai NCNC da AG wadanda ke neman a basu yancin cin gashin kai, abinda suka ga zai yi wuya ba tare da hada kai da arewa ba.

Hakan ne ya sa jam'iyyun uku suka yi ta gwagwarmayar tare.

A ranar da za a baiwa Najeriya ‘yancin kai wato 1 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1960, turawan mulkin mallaka na Ingila sun mika tutar ‘yancin kan ne ga Pira Minista, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa wanda dan arewa ne kuma musulmi, yayinda Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe wanda kirista ne dan kabilar Ibo ke matsayin shugaban kasa.

Tun daga wannan lakacin sauran kabilun musamman Ibo ba su ji dadin lamarin ba na cewa 'yan arewa ne ke mulkarsu, kuma wannan ne ya haifar da juyin mulki na farko da sojoji yawancinsu 'yan kabilar Ibo suka yi a shekarar 1966 karkashin jagorancin Laftanal Kanal Kaduna Nzeogwu, inda aka kashe manyan shugabannin arewa da suka hada da Pira Minista Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, da Pirimiyan arewa Sir Ahmadu Bello Sardaunan Sokoto, da dai sauransu, aka kuma nada Janar Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi a matsayin shugaban kasa.

Kisan su Sardauna ya yi wa sojojin arewa zafi don haka a watan Yulin shekarar 1966 wato watanni shida bayan juyin mulkin farko, Laftanal Kanal Murtala Ramat Muhammed ya jagoranci wani juyin mulkin, wanda ya kawo Laftanal Kanal Yakubu Gowon wanda dan arewa ne amma kirista a matsayin shugaban mulkin soja.

Bayan wannan juyin mulkin ne aka yi ta kashe dubban 'yan kabilar Ibo dake zaune a arewa, lamarin da yasa wasu da dama suka yi kaura zuwa kudu maso gabashin kasar.

Image caption Sojan Biafra a bakin daga

Samun man petur a yankin Naija Delta ya haddasa fargaba a zukatan ‘yan kabilar Ibo na cewa gwamnati za ta yi amfani da kudin man domin gina arewa da yammacin kasar ne kawai, su kuma su zama 'yan kallo.

Wannan da ma kashe kashen da aka yi wa 'yan kabilar Ibo a arewa da kuma zargin da suke na cewa an tabka magudi a zabukan ‘yan majalisun da aka yi a baya wanda ya baiwa arewa damar nasarar kafa gwamnati ya sa a lokacin gwamnan soji a kudu maso gabas Kanal Odumegwu Ojukwu ya nemi ballewar yankin daga Najeriya ranar 30 ga watan Mayun shekarar 1967 domin kafa kasar Biafra.

Wannan shi ne mafarin yakin Biafra da aka kwashe kimanin shekaru uku ana yi a Najeriya, tsakanin 'yan kabilar Ibo dake neman kafa kasarsu da gwamnatin sojin wancan lokacin, karkashin shugabancin Laftanal Kanal Yakubu Gowon.

A ranar 6 ga watan Yulin shekarar 1967 ne dakarun sojin Najeriya suka kutsa kai cikin yankin Biafran ta bangaren arewacin yankin.

Da farko jama'a sun yi tsammanin yakin Biafran tsakanin 'yan arewa da Ibo ne har sai lokacin da dakarun Biafran suka tsallaka cikin yankin yammacin kasar, ta cikin Benin har sai da aka taka musu birki a garin Ore na jihar Ondo.

An yi ta gumurzu tsakanin sojojin gwamnati da dakarun yankin Biafran ta kowanne bangare na Biafran, a kokarinsu na mamaye yankunan da suke neman kwacewa domin kafa tasu kasar.

A ranar 13 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1970 ne, kwanaki bayan da Ojukwu ya yi gudun hijira zuwa kasar Cote' dIvoire ko Ivory Coast, mataimakinsa Philip Effiong ya yi saranda ga dakarun sojin gwamnati, kuma ba a dade ba aka kawo karshen yakin baki daya.

Kimanin fararen hula 180, 000 ne suka rasa rayukansu a yakin.