Jihohin da yankunan Najeriya

Kafin Mulkin Mallaka

Yankuna: Tun kafin shekarar 1914 lokacin da Turawan mulkin mallaka suka shiga yankin da a yanzu ya zama Najeriya kasar na rarrabe ne cikin dauloli 4, wadanda wasunsu suka keta har cikin kasashen Ghana da Kamaru.

1. Daular Arewa: Daular Arewa ta hada da Daular Kanem Borno da daular Hausa, wadanda suka kunshi wasu daga cikin kasashen Hausa kamar Zazzau, Gobir, Kano, Katsina, Daura da kuma wasu garuruwan kabilu kamar Gwari, Kebbi, Nupe Yalwa da dai sauransu.

2. Daular Calabar: An kafa daular Calabar tun shekara ta 1000 AD wato bayan fakuwar Annabi Isa AS, don haka ta kasance daular da tafi kowace dadewa a tarihin Najeriya.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa wasu ‘yan biyu ne suka kafa daular da a farko aka fi sani da daular Nri ta kabilar Ibo.

Daular ta fadada ikonta har zuwa cikin kasar Kamaru ta yanzu.

3. Daular Oduduwa ko ta Yoruba: Wannan daular ta kunshi asalin kabilar Yarabawa wadanda cibiyarsu ke Ile-Ife da Oyo dake yankin kudu maso yammaci, wanda tarihi ya nuna cewa Oduduwa ne ya fara kafata, yayin da ya tura 'yansa su kafa wasu garuruwan da suka zama sarakunansu.

4. Daular Benin: Daular Benin ita ce daula mafi karfi a tarihin Najeriya wadda ita ma take yankin kudu maso yammacin kasar. Wannan daular ta yi karfi sosai a wancan lokacin, inda ta fadada har zuwa cikin kasar Ghana. Daular Benin ta yi suna wajen sassake sassake a nahiyar Afirka.

Mulkin Mallaka

A shekarar 1914, turawa sun hade yankunan arewa da kudanci da kuma Lagas, abinda ya samar da Najeriya da ake da ita a yanzu.

Daga nan sun kasa kasar gida hudu domin tafiyar da ayyukan gwamnati:

  • Yankin Lagas,
  • Lardunan Arewaci
  • Lardunan Gabashi
  • Lardunan Yammaci

Har ya zuwa wannan lokacin wasu yankunan Kamaru na cikin Najeriya.

Kundin tsarin mulkin shekarar 1951 ya mayar da lardunan zuwa matsayin yankuna, wato yankunan Legas, Arewa, Gabashi da Yammaci.

A shekarar 1967, Janar Yakubu Gowon wanda shi ne shugaban kasa a lokacin, ya kasa yankuna hudunda ake da su zuwa jihohi 12, biyo bayan korafe-korafe da rigingimun da aka yi ta samu game da ko waye ke da iko tsakanin al'ummomin yankunan.

Jihohin da Janar Gowon ya kirkiro sun hadar da jihar Kano, jihar Benue Plato, jihar Kwara, jihar Rivers, jihar Lagos, jihar arewa ta tsakiya, arewa maso yamma, jihar yamma, jihar gabas ta tsakiya, jihar arewa maso gabas, jihar yamma ta tsakiya, jihar kudu maso gabas.

Janar Gowon ya yi amfani da yawan jama'ar kowanne yanki wajen basu yawan jihoji, inda arewa ke da jihohi shida, sai uku-uku ga yankunan gabashi da yammaci.

Sai dai ba kowa bane ya gamsu da yawan jihohin da Janar Gowon ya kirkiro ba, inda suka yi ta neman karin jihohin.

Wannan ya sa Janar Murtala Ramat Muhammed na hawa mulki a shekarar 1975 ya fara duba batun kirikirar sabbin jihohi.

Kwamitin da ya nada domin duba batun ya bada shawarar kirkiro da sababbin jihohi 19, da suka hada da Kano, Sokoto, Kaduna, Borno, Bauchi, Niger, Plateau, Kwara, Gongola, Oyo, Benue, Ondo, Ogun, Bendel, Anambra, Imo, Rivers, Cross River da Lagos.

A wannan lokacin arewa tana da jihohi 10, yamma 5 gabashin kasar kuma na da 4.

Sai dai kuma ‘yan kabilar Ibo da ke gabashin kasar ba su ji dadin jihohi biyu da aka basu ba wato Anambra da Imo, abinda ya sa suka ci gaba da neman karin jihohi.

Wannan ya sa a lokacinda Janar Babangida ya hau mulki a shekarar 1985, ya kirkiri sababbin jihohi biyu wato Akwa Ibom ta kabilar Ibo a gabashi da kuma jihar Katsina a arewacin Najeriya, wadanda da su aka sami jahohi 21 a kasar.

A wannan lokacin Janar Ibrahim Babangida ya dasa aya ga batun sake kirkirar sababbin jihohi, inda ya ce babu matsin lambar da za ta sa gwamnati ta sauya matsayarta.

Sai dai kuma da tafiya ta yi tafiya, gwamnati ta lashe amanta, bayan da jihohin dake da girman gaske kamar Kano, Oyo da Sokoto suka yi ta neman da a raba su ta yadda za su samu wadatar kulawa daga kudaden da ake baiwa jihohi.

Hakan ne ya sa a ranar 27 ga watan Agustan shekarar 1991, gwamnatin Janar Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida ta sake kirkiro da sababbin jihohi tara da suka hada da Jigawa, Kebbi, Yobe, Taraba, Kogi, Edo, Osun, Enugu da kuma Delta.

Tun daga wannan lokacin wasu dake ganin ana mayar da su saniyar ware a harkokin mulki suka ci gaba da neman gwamnati ta mayar da garuruwansu zuwa jihohi, ko da yake hakan bai sa mu ba, har sai a shekarar 1996 lokacin mulkin Janar Sani Abacha ya sake kirkiro da sababbin jihohi 6 wadanda suka hada da Gombe a arewa maso gabas, Zamfara a arewa maso yamma da Nassarawa a arewa ta tsakiya.

Sai kuma Ekiti a kudu maso yamma, Bayelsa a kudu maso kudu da Ebonyi a kudu maso gabashin kasar.

Hakan ya sa Najeriya a yanzu take da jihohi 36, kuma daga su har yanzu ba gwamnatin da ta sake kirkiro wata sabuwar, duk kuwa da cewa har yanzu wasu na nan na ta neman karin jihohi, kamar jihar Bayajidda a Daura, Karaduwa a Funtuwa, Hadejia a Jigawa, Bagauda a Kano, Ibadan a kudu da dai sauransu.