Shin an manta da yakin Dafur ne?

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ce yawan mutanen da suka tsere daga yakin da ake yi a yankin Darfur na Sudan ya kai 73,000. Fararen hula suna barin gidajensu sakamakon fadan da ake yi tsakanin gwamnati da wata kungiyar 'yan tawaye da ta ware ta Sudan Liberation Army. To ko me ye mafarin fadan, kuma me yasa yake kara zafi yanzu?

Image caption Dubban mutane sun bar gidajensu sakamakon rikicin da ake yi a Jebel Marra
"Yaushe aka fara wannan yaki?"

An shafe shekaru da dama ana samun tashe-tashen hankula a yankin Darfur kan kasar noma da kiwo, tsakanin mafi yawan Larabawa makiyaya da kuma manoma daga al'ummomin Fur da Massaleet da Zaghawa.

A farkon shekarar 2003 ne, kungiyar SLA da kuma wata kungiya mai kokarin samar da daidaito Jem suka fara kai wa gwamnati hari. Suna zargin gwamnatin Sudan da matsantawa bakar fata 'yan Afrika da fifita Larabawa a kansu.

Gwamnati ta amince cewa ta samar da mayakan sa kai bayan da 'yan tawaye suka kai hare-hare.

Kazalika, ta yi watsi da duk wata alaka tsakaninta da kungiyar mayakan sa kai ta Arab Janjaweed, wata kungiya da ke kokarin murkushe bakaken fata 'yan Afrika.

'Yan gudun hijira sun ce kungiyar Janjaweed na kai hare-hare a duk lokacin da jiragen yakin gwamnati suka kai hari. Sun ce mayakan na Janjaweed na shiga kauyuka a kan dawakai da rakuma, suna kashe maza tare da yi wa mata fyade.

"Me ya faru da fararen hula a Darfur?"

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ce wannan yaki da aka shafe kusan fiye da shekaru goma ana yi ya raba kusan mutane miliyan daya da muhallansu.

Da yawan mutane yanzu haka na samun mafaka ne a sansanoni kusa da garuruwan da ke kusa da Darfur, yayin da dubbai kuma suka yi kaura zuwa kasashe masu makwabtaka kamar Chadi.

A shekarar 2008 ne MDD ta kiyasta cewa mutane 300,000 ne suka mutu sakamakon yakin, amma gwamnatin Sudan ta karyata adadin.

Amurka da wasu kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam sun ce abin da yake faruwa din kisan kare dangi ne.

Kazalika wata tawagar bincike ta MDD a shekarar 2005, ta ce duk da cewa an aikata laifukan ayyukan yaki amma lamarin bai kai ga a kira shi kisan kare dangi ba.

"To ko ana wani kokari don kawo karshen yakin?"
Image caption MDD ta ce fiye da mutane miliyan daya ne suka rabu da muhallansu tun farkon fara yakin

A shekarar 2006, daya daga cikin bangaren 'yan tawaye sun sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya da gwamnati, amma ba a yi aiki da ita ba.

A shekarar 2011 aka sake sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniyar zaman lafiyar a tsakanin gamayyar kananan kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye a Doha mai suna DDPD.

Wani mai sharhi a Sudan James Copnall, ya shaida wa BBC cewa yarjejeniyar DDPD ta yi alkawarin samar da dukiya da raba mukami da ci gaban Darfur da kuma bayar da diyya ga wadanda suka sha wahala yayin yakin, amma ba a aiwatar da da yawa cikin wadannan abubuwa ba.

"To ko me kasashen duniya suka yi kan wannan yaki?"

A watan Maris na shekarar 2009, kotun hukunta masu aikata miyagun laifuka ta ICC ta zargi shugaban kasar Sudan Omar al-Bashir da laifin kisan kare dangi da aikata laifukan yaki da kuma cin zarafin bil'adama a Darfur.

An tuhumeshi da kisan kare dangi don kokarin ganin an kawar da al'ummomin Fur da Zaghawa da Masalit. Amma duk ya yi watsi da wadannan zarge-zarge.

"To me ake ciki ne a halin yanzu?"

Tun a tsakiyar watan Janiru fada ya sake rincabewa tsakanin gwamnati da wata kungiyar 'yan tawaye ta Sudan Liberation Army a yankin Jebel Marra.

Kwamitin kungiyar tarayyar Afrika da ke aiki kafada da kafada da MDD ya ce fararen hula 21,338 ne wadanda mafi yawansu mata da yara ne suka tsere zuwa arewacin Darfur ranar 1 ga watan Fabrairun 2016.

A cewar MDD kuma kusan mutane 15,000 ne suka gudu zuwa jihar da ke tsakiyar Darfur.

Makonni biyu bayan nan MDD ta ce yawan fararen hular da suka gudu ya haura 73,000.

Marta Ruedas ita ce jami'ar agaji ta MDD a Sudan, ta ce, "Gano bukatun mutanen da ke cikin wani hali al'amari ne mai wahala, amma kuma abu ne da yake bukatar tilas a shawo kansa domin ba su irin tallafin da suke bukata."

Image caption Tun tsakiyar watan Janairu fada ya sake kamari tsakanin gwamnati da 'yan tawaye
"Me Darfur ke bukata a yanzu?"

Hukumar samar da abinci ta duniya WFP ta kiyasta cewa mutane miliyan 4.5 suna fama da yunwa a Sudan, kuma kashi 60 cikin 100 daga cikinsu a Darfur suke.

A tun lokacin da fadan ya sake kamari, wakilin BBC kan sha'anin tsaro a Afrika Tomi Oladipo, ya ce fararen hula da dama suna samun mafaka ne a wani sansani na dakarun wanzar da zaman lafiya na MDD da kuma kungiyar Tarayyar Afrika a arewacin Darfur.

Ya ce, "MDD ta ce tana aiki domin gano bukatun wadanda suke gudun hijira, duk da cewa ba zata ita biyawa dubban 'yan gudun hijirar da ke tsakiyar Darfur bukatarsu ba tunda hukumomin Sudan ba su samar da hanyar yin hakan ba."

Hukumar samar da abinci ta duniya tana kuma fatan taimakawa 'yan gudun hijirar ta hanyar sabon tsarinta na bayar da tallafin kudi, inda za ta dinga basu kudi domin su sayi abinci.