Rawar da Musulmi suka taka a Ingila

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Karni na 16 yana da matukar mahimmanci a tarihin kasar Ingila. To amma ba kowane ya san cewa a lokacin ne musulmai suka fara zama a kasar suna yin ayyuka sannan kuma ba tare da sun bar addininsu ba.

Jerry Brotton ya leka kundin tarihi ga kuma abin da ya tsakuro.

A karni na 16, musulmi daga Afrika ta arewa da gabas ta tsakiya da kuma tsakiyar nahiyar Asia sun shiga Ingila, a matsayin jami'an huldar jakadanci da 'yan kasuwa da masu fassara da mawaka da bayi, kai har ma da karuwai.

Musulman dai sun sami damar kasancewa a Ingilar ne sakamakon mayar da Ingila saniyar ware karkashin sarauniya Elizabeth da cocin Catolika ta yi, a 1570.

Hakan ne ya sanya kasar shiga huldatayyar kasuwanci da kasashen Musulmi da suka hada da masarautar Sa'adiyya ta Moroko da Daular Ottoman ta Turkiyya da kuma Daular 'yan Shi'a da ke a yankin Persia.

Sarauniya Elizabeth ta tura 'yan kasuwa da wakilan huldar jakadancin Ingila zuwa kasashen na musulmai domin su yaukaka zumunci tsakanin addinin musulunci da na kiristanci, al'amarin da ya sanya musulmai suka fara shiga birnin London.

Musulman dai sun hada da Larabawa da Indiyawa da bakake 'yan Afirka da kuma turkawa.

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Image caption Kafin shigar musulmai zuwa Ingila, turawan kasar suna da mummunar fahimta a kan addinin musulunci.

Kafin zamanin sarauniya Elizabeth dai, kasar ta Ingila kamar sauran kasashen kiristoci, sun fahimci addinin musulunci ne kawai ta hanyar yake-yaken da masu neman shafe muslmai daga ban kasa suka yi.

Babu wani kirista da ya taba sanin kalmomi kamar musulunci ko kuma musulmi, wadanda aka fara amfani da su a harshen Ingilishi a karni na 17.

An dai fi sanin musulman da 'Saracens', wani suna da aka samo daga 'ya'yan annabi Ibrahim wadanda kuma ake kyautata zato cewa su ne asalin kabilar Larabawa guda 12.

Har wa yau dai, kafin zuwan musulman cikin kasar, kiristoci ba su yarda da kasancewar addinin musulunci addini mai tsari ba. Abin da suka yi imani da shi shi ne musulmai maguzawa ne ko kuma wasu mutane ne da suka bangare daga addinin kiristanci.

Wani abu kuma shi ne, kafin wannan loakci musulmi ba sa son zuwa kasashen kiristoci ko kuma abin da suka kira 'gidan yaki' wanda ya zama barazana ga 'gidan musulunci'.

To amma tun bayan hawan sarauniya Elizabeth, komai ya canja. A shekarar 1562, 'yan kasuwar Ingila suka je fadar sarki Persia, Shah Tahmasp, a inda suka fahimci babbanci tsakanin akidun Shi'a da na Sunna. Sun kuma koma Ingila, tare da yarinya baiwa, mai suna Aura Soltana, a matsayin kyauta ga sarauniya.

Soltana ta zamo baiwa 'yar gaban goshin sarauniya wadda har ta kai tana sanya tufafin siliki. Kuma ita ce ta fara sanyawa sarauniya sha'awar sanya takalaman fata kirar Spaniya.

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Image caption Wasu musulmai ne ke sallah

Baya ga Soltana, daruruwan musulmai sun shiga daular ta sarauniya Elizabeth. A 1586, Francis Drake ya koma Ingila daga Columbia tare da daruruwan Turkawa wadanda daular Spaniya ta kama ta kuma kai Amurka, a matsayin bayi.

Daya daga cikinsu sunansa Chinano wanda kuma shi ne sanannen mutum na farko musulmi da ya koma addinin kiristanci.

Kuma an yi masa wankan tuba sannan kuma aka rada masa suna William Hawkins, a cocin St Katharine da ke birnin London. Kuma Dandanan William ya shiga ya saje da mutanen kasar.

To amma abin da ba a iya hakikancewa ba shi ne gaskiyar komawar Chinano zuwa addinin kiristanci. Amma dai ba shi kadai ne wanda ya koma kiristanci ba koma yake fatan neman nakai a Ingilar ba.

Akwai masaka da madinka da makera da ma masu hada giya. Kundin tarihin Ingila ya nuna cewa an samu matan musulmi da suka koma zuwa kiristanci kamar Mary Fillis, wadda sana'ar mahaifinta ita ce sakar kwando.

Ita kuma an mata wankan tuba a cocin Whitechapel da ke birnin London, a shekarar 1597, a inda kuma ake tsammanin na ta zauna har karshen rayuwarta.

Sai dai kuma ba a iya tantance addinin wasunsu ba, misali kamar wani dan kasar Morocco wanda ya mutu kuma aka binne shi a 1597 din amma ba tare da jama'a sun raka gawarsa ba kuma babu wani biki, saboda shugabannin cocin ba su iya tantance ko Musulmi ne ko kuma kirista ne ba.

Image caption Hoton wasu musulmai na wannan zamanin a Birtaniya.

Al'amarin dai ba bangare daya ya shafa ba, domin daruruwan kiristoci maza da mata na masarautar Elizabeth da suka shiga kasashen musulmi sun musulunta. Sai dai yayin da wasu suka musulunta don ra'ayin kansu, an tilasta wasu shiga addinin.

Mutanen dai sun hada da 'yan kasuwar kamar Samson Rowlie wanda wasu 'yan Turkiyya masu satar jirgin ruwa a Algeriya suka kama, a 1577, suka garkame shi a kurkuku sannan kuma suka yi masa fidiya, bayan da suka tirsasa shi ya karbi musulunci.

An sauya masa suna zuwa Hassan Aga kuma daga baya ya zama ma'ajin kudin a daular Turkiyya sannan kuma ya zamo dan gaban goshin gwamnan daular Ottoman. Bai koma Ingila ba, haka kuma bai koma addinin kiristanci ba.

Haka kuma kawance tsakanin sarauniya Elizabeth da daulolin Persia da na Moroko sun taimaka wajen shigar musulmai zuwa London. Tarihi ya nuna cewa an tura jami'an huldar jakadancin Turkiyya zuwa London, a shekarar 1580, amma ba aji duriyarsu ba.

Shekara 10 bayan nan, wani jakadan kasar Moroko mai suna Muhammad al-Annur ya je London tare da 'yan kasuwa da masu fassara da malamai da kuma bayi sun kuma zauna a birnin har tsawon watanni shida, a inda mutanen London suke zuwa kallon su idan suna yin ibada.

Image caption Hoton wani baki dan Birtaniya da ya musulunta.

Wani mutum ma ya fadi cewa musulman suna "yanka dabbobinsu a cikin gidajensu" sannan kuma suna "kallon gabas yayin da suke yankan, suna kuma amfani da carbi wajen rokon waliyansu."

Jakada al-Annuri wanda aka zana hotonsa, ya gana da sarauniya Elizabeth da masu ba ta shawara, har karo biyu.

A lokacin ne al-Annuri ya nemi da sarauniyar ta zo su hada sojin kawance domin kai wa yankunan da Ingilar take yi wa mulkin mallaka hare-hare, a Amurka.

Amma saboda sarauniya Elizabeth tana tsoron ba ta wa daular Ottoman rai, ba ta amince da kwancen ba.

Kawancen Ingila da musulmai dai ya zo karshe bayan da sarauniya Elizabeth ta mutu kuma kokarin magajinta, James 1, na sasantawa da kasar Spaniya mai kishin kiristanci.

Amma dai kasancewar musulmai kamar al-Annuri da Ahmed Bilqasim da Chinano da kuma Mary Fillis za su ci gaba da kasancewa cikamakin tarihin sarauniyar Ingila Elizabeth.

Abu ne bayyanan ne cewa musulmai sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a tarihin Birtaniya, lokaci mai tsawo, ba kamar yadda wasu suka tsammata ba.