Yadda ake shawo kan illar matsanancin kadaici

Mukan so kadaici a wasu lokuta, amma tsawaita shi na da illa ga jiki da kwakwalwa Hakkin mallakar hoto (Getty/Images)
Image caption Mukan so kadaici a wasu lokuta, amma tsawaita shi na da illa ga jiki da kwakwalwa

Mu kan so kadaici a wasu lokuta, amma tsawaita shi na da illa ga jiki da kwakwalwa.

Na biyu, mukan fuskanci ma'anar wani lamari a tunaninmu ta hanyar mu'amala da wasu.

Masana kimiyyar nazarin rayuwar halittu na da tabbacin cewa sosuwar zuciyar mutum na fartuwa saboda taimakekeniya tsakanin magabatanmu na farko, wadanda suka ci gajiyar zaman mutane masu yawa a tare.

Amfanin farko dai shi ne zamantakewar al'umma.

Tun da babu mai daidaita al'amuran tunaninmu kana bin day a danganci tsoro da bacin rai da damuwa dab akin ciki, sannan ya taimaka mana wajen yanke matsaya kan cancantarsu, kafin su haifar mana da gurbatacciyar mahangar tunani, sai ta tabbata a kan rikirkitattar kwakwalwa ko rudanin shirme.

Yi nazari kan 'yan kurkuku 25,00 da aka tsare su "gagarumin gidan kaso mai matakan tsaro" a Amurka ta Yau.

Rashin mu'amala da mutane ga fursunonin da aka yi wa tsattsauran tsaro babu yadda za su tantance cancantar abin da suke ji a zuciuyarsu ko managarcin tunaninsu, a cewar Terry Kupers, wani kwararren mai bin kadin aikin da ya gabata ta hanyar tan tance tasirin aikin kwakwalwa, da ke cibiyar Wright ta Berkeley a California, wanda ya tattauna da fursunonin da suka kasance karkarshin tsauraran matakan tsaro su dubu.

Irin hakan dai shi ne dalilin aukuwar matsananciyar damuwa da fargaba da damfaruwa da wani irin tunani.

Craig Haney, masanin tantance tasirin kwakwalwa kan dabi'u na Jami'ar California, Santa Cruz, wan da shi ne ja-gaban masana lafiyar kwakwalwa a Amurka, ya nuna tabbacin cewa wasu daga cikinsu ke yin mummunan artabu da jami'an kurkuiku don bai w akansu tabbaci suna nan a raye tare da jadadda kimar matsayinsu.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Thinkstock)
Image caption Wasu na jin cewa samun horon soja kan taimaka wajen shawo kan matsanantan illolin kadaici (Thinkstock)

Matakan juriya

Kebance mutum daga mu'amala da al'umma ba ko da yaushe yake haifar da matsala ba. Ko wasu sun fi wasu iya jurewa?

Kana iya horar da kanka yadda za ka iya shawo kan matsanantan illoin da ka iya faruwa? An an masana kimiyya suna da wasy 'yan amshoshi, sai dai muna iya sam un darussa daga daidaikun mutanen suka tsira ko suka jajirce (ba su cutu da) kadaicin kilacewa ba.

Lokacin da aka tsare Shourd a kurkukun Iran, tabbas bata cikin mutanen da suka jajirce da juriya, saboda lamarin ya auku gareta ne kwatsam.

Mutanen da ke cikin yanayi irin nata duniya kan cukurkude musu, kuma ba su da karfin shawo kan matsala, ba su da fahimtar yin juriya ko jajircewa dion samun kyakkyawan alfanu da zai taimaka musu wajen fahimtar al'amarin.

Ko da yake za su fahimci wani abu daga matsalar da suka samu kansu ko su fada halin rashin fuskantar gaskiyar lamarin da ke faruwa yau da gobe, kamar yadda lamarin kan kasance in an tauye mutum da kadaici.

Hussain Al-Shahristani ya shawo kan lamarin.

Ya kasance babban mai bai wa saddam Hussein shawara kan makamin nukiliya kafin a azabtar da shi, a garkame shi a kurkukun Abu Ghraib kusa da Baghdad saboda kyakkyawar manufarsa ta hana shi bayar da hadin kai wajen kera makami mai linzami na "atomic."

Ya kasance mai kyakkyawan tunani tsawon shekara 10 da aka garkame shi, ta hanyar ninkaya a managartan dabaru wajen warware matsalolin lisssafi day a yi ta kokarin warwarewa.

A yanzu shi ne mataimakin ministan makamashi a Iraki.

Edith Bone, wani mai fassara kimiyyar likitanci, ya bi irin wannan tafarkin lokacin day a share shekara bakwai a kurkukun Gwamnatin Kwamunisancin Hungary bayan yakin duniya na biyu, inda ya rika kirkiro kulluntun kirga ko carbin lissafi (abacus) daga busasshen burodi, sannan ta ci gaba kidayar manyan kalmomin da ta lakanta a harsunan shida.

Wasu na jin cewa samun horon soja kan taimaka wajen shawo kan matsanantan illolin kadaici (Thinkstock)

Samun kai a irin wadannan yanayi zai yi saukin tunkara idan kai soja ne.

Keron Fletcher, kwararren mai tantance tasirin kwakwalwa ga dabi'u, wanda ya taimaka wa wadan da suka yi fama da tursasawar tambayoyi da wadanda aka yi garkuwa da su, ya ce 'yar tsarewar da aka yi masa da tambayoyi irin wadannan lokacin day a yi aiki da rundunar sojan sama ta Royal Air Force su suka horar dashi yadda ake shawo kan matsalar da mutum ke fuskanta in an kama shi.

"Suna horar da kai dabarun juriya," a cewarsa. "Sannan kana sane da cewa abokan aiki na kokarin kwatoka. Ina jin cewa sojoji ba su cika jin takaici ko rashin kwarin gwiwa ba.

Rashin katabusa da fatan kyakkyawar makoma tashin hankali ne da ke kasha wa mutum kwarin gwiwar juriya."

Dan majalisar dattijan Amurka John McCain kyakkyawan misali ne kan yadda tunanin soja ke bai wa mutum karsashin kyakyawan aikin kwakwalwa.

Shekara biyar da rabi da ya shafe a kurkukun Vietnam lokacin yaki, inda ya ki bai wa masu tuhumarsa hadin kai, tabbbas ya karfafa shi.

Ko da yake abin da ya ce game da shekaru biyun da ya shafe a tsare: "Lamarin na da tayar da hankali killace mutum cikin kadaici. Yakan raunana ruhi, ya kassara jajircewa ta yadda ba za ka iya katabus ba, in an kwatanta da nau'ukan azabtarwa.

Farkon rashin kwarin gwiwa, ita ce garkuwar abokin gaba."

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Thinkstock)
Image caption Matukan jiragen ruwa kan shawo kan kadaici ne ta hanyar kimanta abin da ba mutum ba a matsayin mutum (Thinkstock)

Hakikanin lamari

Masanan tasirin kwakwalwa kan dabi'u, wadanda suka nazarci yadda mutane ke jure wa kadaici sun samu fahimta daga masu binciken al'amuran duniya da mahaya tsaunuka.

Mafi yawan masu bin kadin al'amuran duniya kan yi fama da kadaici duk da su suka sa kansu kyawun tsirrai da fadin kasa kan kwantar musu da hankali.

Masanin tantqance tasirin kwakwalwa kan dabi'u dan kasar Norway, Gro Sandal na Jami'ar Bergen da ke Norway, wanda ya tattauna da dimbin masu kai-kawon binciken duniya kan yadda suke jurewa a matsanancin kuncin muhalli, cewa ya yi, hakikanin lamarinsu n a nuni da haka kawai suke da juriya. "Su kan ji cewa suna da kariya. Ba su cika jin kadaici ba."

Irin wannan tsarin na tan tance tasirin kwakwalwa kan dabi'u na nuni da cewa idan aka samu hadarin jirgin ruwa ya nutse, wadanda suka tsira a wani tsibiri sukan mayar abubuwan da suke gani tamkar mutane, a wani yanayin ma har kulla abota suke don shawo kan kadaici.

Lamarin kamar hauka ne, amma dabarar kawar da matsala ce.

Dubi yadda matukiyar jirgin ruwa Ellen MacAthur da ta yi wa turakun jirginta lakabin "Mobi," lokacin da ta kafa tarihin karade duniya a shekarar 2005.

A lokacin wannan tafiya ta rika aikewa da sakon i-mail ga masu bat a kwarin gwiwa da taken "ina kaunar e da mobi," kuma aklwatin sakonta ta rika yin amfani da "mu" maimakon "ni."

Matukan jiragen ruwa kan shawo kan kadaici ne ta hanyar kimanta abin da ba mutum ba a matsayin mutum.

Babu wani mummunar illar kadaici da ke tauye wani mutum, sannanm ta daga karsashin wani fiye da labaran Bernard Moitessier da Donald Crowhurst, wadanda nsuka shiga gasar jaridar Sunday Times ta karade duniya a jirgin ruwa a shekarar 1968.

Kofin da aka bai wa matukin farko da ya kammala kewayen duniya shi kadai, Robin Knox-Johnson ya ci ne saboda kammala kewayen cikin kwanaki 313, kuma shi kadai ne cikin mutum tara da suka fafata ya kai ga gaci.

Ya ji dadin tafiya shi kadai a karamin jirgin ruwansa, sabanin Moitessier, Bafaranshen da duniya bat a sham as akai ba, wanda ke motsa jikin yoga a jirgi ya rika cin kakide da tsuntsayen ruwa da ke baibaye shi.

Moitessier ya ji dadin wannan yanayin, kuma tafiya a bagiren ci gaban zamani ba ya gabansa, har ta kai ga ya yi watsi da damar da ya samu ta samun nasara, sai kawai ya ci gaba da tafiya, inda kwatsam ya tsinci kansa a Tahiti bayan ya shafe rabin tafiyar kewayen duniya.

"Na ci gaba ba kakkautawa, saboda farin cikin kasancewata a teku," acewarsa,"kuma ta yi wu saboda ina son tsira da rayuwata.

Shi kuwa Crowhurst tashin farko ya samu matsala. Ya bar Ingila ba tare da shiri ba, sannan ya rika aikewa da rahotanin karya game da inda ya kai ta Kudancion teku, alhalin bai ma fita daga tekun Atlantic ba.

Ya yi ta watangaririya tsawon watanni a Kudancin Amurka, inda ya ci gaba da dugunzuma cikin damuwa da kadaici, inda daga bisani ya tare a jirginsa, inda ya tattara bayanan rudanin mafarkinsa cikin kalmomi 25,000 kafin ya yi tsalle cikin ruwa. Ba a gano gawarsa ba.

Wane sako muka samu daga daga labaran juriya da rashin kwarin gwiwa? Gaskiyar da take karara ita ce muka rasa katabus idan muka rabu da juna.

Kadaicin na iya zama sanadiyyar "tattara karya lagon karsashi," kamar yadda marubuci Thomas Carlyle ya yi nuni.

Sai dai muhimmin al'amari da aka tantance shi ne: akwai yiwuwar hada wata dangantakar, don samun sauki baya ga haduwar junanmu, ko da muna mu kadai.

Shirin matukar taimakawa wajen jajircewar kwakwalwa. Amma ka da raina kimar tunaninmu da zai iyta kutsawa katangar kurkuku, ko keta kogon kankara ko samar da abokan tafiya tare da mu.

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