Matukin da ya saci jirgin yakin Tarayyar Sobiyat

Science photo Library Hakkin mallakar hoto Science Photo Library
Image caption Jirgi ne mai tagwayen injuna, amma ba dan qaramin jirgin da aka saba gani a Hakodate ba.

A ranar 6 ga watan Satumbar 1976, wani jirgin sama ya bayyana cikin girgijen saman birnin Japan na Hakodate, da ke Arewacin tsibirin Hokaido.

Jirgi ne mai tagwayen injuna, amma ba dan qaramin jirgin da aka saba gani a Hakodate ba.

Babban jirgin, mai launin toka-toka mai adon jajayen taurarin tarayyar Sobiyat ne.

Babu wanda ya taba ganinsa a Yammacin Turai gabanin bayyanarsa.

Wannan jirgi ya sauka a titin zaryar sauka da tashin jirage na Hakodate.

Titin zaryar ya kasance mara isasshen tsawo.

Jirgin ya bazu tsawonsa ya kai kafa daruruwa kafin ya zauna daram a karshen filin jiragen saman.

Matukin jirgin ya fito daga kebabben wurin zamansa, sai ya yi harbin gargadi sau biyu daga qaramar bindigarsa- masu motocin da ke tafiya a kan titi a kusa da filin jirgin suna ta daukar hotunan wannan abu da ba a saba gani ba.

An dauki wasu ministoci kafin jami'an kula da filin jirgin saman suka tuko mota daga wurin sauka da tashin fasinjoji, suka same shi.

Daganan sai wannan matukin jirgin mai shekaru 29, Fulayit Laftanar Viktor Ivanovich Belenko, daga rundunar tsaron sojan saman Sobiyat ya ce yana son sauya sheka (tserewa daga kasarsa).

Ba kasafai aka saba sauyin sheka ba.

Belenko bai yi tattaki zuwa ofishin jakadanci ba, ko shiga jirgin ruwa a lokacin da ya ziyarci tashar jiragen ruwa a kasar waje.

Jirgin da ya tuko ya ci har mil 400, kuma yake tsaye a farfajiyar titin zaryar Japan, shi ne kirar Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25.

Shi ne jirgin sirri da tarayyar Sobiyat ta taba kerawa.

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Hakkin mallakar hoto US Navy
Image caption Turai ta samu masaniya kan irin wannan jirgi kirar MiG-25 cikin shekarar 1970

Turai ta samu masaniya kan irin wannan jirgi kirar MiG-25 cikin shekarar 1970.

Taurarin dan Adam na leken asiri da ke kai-kawo a filayen saukar jiragen saman Sobiyat sun dauko hoton wani sabon jirgin sama da ake gwajinsa cikin sirri.

Fasalinsa kamar babban jirgin yaki, Kuma rundunar sojojin Yammacin Turai sun damu matuka game da siffar da suka gani mai manyan fuka-fuki.

Babban fuffuke na da matukar amfani ga jirgin yaki - yana taimakawa wajen dagawa, kuma yana rage nauyin da ke bazuwa kan fuffuken, wanda ke tallafa masa wajen yin hanzari da saukin juyi.

Wannan jirgin Sobiyat ya tara wannan karfi tare da manyan injuna.

Ko yaya nisan gudunsa yake? Ko akwai kwatankwacinsa a rundunar sojan saman Amurka ko sauran rundunonin soja da za su iya yin daidai da shi?

An kyallo irin wannan a Gabas ta Tsakiya. Cikin Maris din 1971, Isra'ila ta fito da wani sabon jirgi da aka daga kimarsa zuwa kirar Mach 3.2 - gudunsa ya nunka gudun sauti sau uku - yana kuma cin nisan kafa dubu 63 (kimanin kilomita 20) a sama.

Gwamnatin Isra'ila da masu bayar da shawarar asiri kan harkokin tsaron Amurka, basu taba ganin wani abu irin wannan ba.

Bayan kwanaki kadan da ganin sa, mayakan Isra'ila sai suka yi kokarin cafko jirgin amma ba su iya kai wa ko kusa da shi ba.

Cibiyar tsaro ta Pentagon ta hada wannan da wancan (biyu da biyu), inda ta bijiro da rudanin yakin cacar baki.

A watan Nuwamba, Isra'ila ta yi wa jirgin baduhu mai kutse kwanton bauna, ta harba makamai masu linzami sama zuwa kafa dubu 30 daga kasa. Babu wani tasiri da ya yi.

Abin da suka yi nufin harbi ya wuce da gudu da kimanin karfin rubi'i uku na gudun sauti - tuni wannan jirgi ya fice daga da'urar hadari sannan makami mai linzamin da aka harba ya tarwatse.

Cibiyar tsaro ta Pentagon ta hada wannan da wancan (biyu da biyu), inda ta bijiro da rudanin yakin cacar baki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto US Navy

Sun samu tabbacin cewa jirgin da suka gani ya yi daidai da abin da ke dauke a hoton tauraron dan Adam da suka gani.

Kwatsam sai aka bijiro musu da jirgin yakin Sobiyat da ya sha gaban kowane irin abu da rundunar sojan saman Amurka ta mallaka.

Wannan al'amari na rashin fahimta a harkokin soja, a cewar Stephen Trimble, Editan Mujallar harkokin sufurin sama na Flightglobal da ke Amurka.

"Sun bashi kimar da ta zarta karfin ikonsa bisa la'akari da siffarsa," a cewarsa, " daga girman fuffuke da girmansa wajen zuko iska.

"Sun san cewa yana da musifar gudu, kuma za a iya juya akalarsa ta hanyoyi da dama.

Zaton farko ya yi daidai, amma na biyu bai zama gaskiya ba."

Abin tauraron dan Adam na Amurka ya gano, da na'urar isra'ila mai gano abubuwan da ke wucewa (radar), samfurin kirarsu iri daya ce da MiG-25.

An kera ne don shan gaban nau'ukan jiragen da Amurka ta yi kokarin fito da su cikin shekarun 1960 - wadanda kimarsu ta kama daga jirgin yaki kirar F-108 zuka kirar SR-71 da babban mai luguden bam na B-70.

Irin wadannan jirage suna da kamanceceniya da juna - gudunsu nunki uku ne na bazuwar karar sauti.

Bunkasar kere-keren da ake bukata don daga kimar jirgi daga Mach 2 zuwa Mach 3 babban kalubale ne a da.

A shekarun 1950, Sobiyat ta yi matukar samun ci gaba a hada-hadar jiragen sama.

Suna da masu luguden bama-bamai da ke tashi da gudu fiye da jirgin Amurka kirar B-52.

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Jiragen yakinsu mafi yawansu gungun kwararrun da suka zayyana kirar MiG suka yi su - al'amarin da ya ba su damar kalubalantar takwarorinsu na Amurka, duk da cewa na'urarsu ta gano abubuwa (radar) da sauran na'urorin lantarkinsu ba wasu cukurkudabbu ba ne.

Amma bunkasar kere-keren da ake bukata don daga kimar jirgi daga kirar Mach 2 zuwa Mach 3 babban kalubale ne a lokacin.

Kuma shi ne abin da ya kamata masu zayyanar Sobiyat su yi da hanzari yadda yake yiwuwa.

Karkashin jagorancin mai basira Rostislav Belyakov gungun masu zayyana suka yi aiki. Tashi da gudu, sabon jirgin yaki na bukatar injina da zai bashi karfin keta iska.

Tumansky, ja-gaban masu zayyanar na'ura a Tarayyar Sobiyat (USSR), tuni ya kera injin da ake da tabbacin zai iya yin wannan aiki, wato kirar R-15 turbojet, wanda aka kera shi da manufar cillawa nisan samaniya ya kauce wa makami mai linzami.

Wannan sabon jirgin kirar MiG na bukatar irinsu biyu, ta yadda kowanne zai iya samun damar ketawa cikin iska mai nauyin ton 11.

Tashi da tsananin gudu na haifar da dimbin turjiyar zafi a lokacin da jirgin ke fafatawa da kwayoyin sinadaran iska.

Lokacin da Lockheed ya kera jirgi rirar SR-71 Balackbird, an kera shi ne daga cikin sinadarin titanium, wanda ke da juriyar tsananin zafi.

Sai dai sinadarin titanium na da tsada da kuma wahala wajen amfani da shi.

Sabanin haka, MiG an yi shi ne da karfe.

An dibge da sauran abubuwa. Wannan kirar MiG-25 an yi masa walda (injuna) da hannu.

Sai ka tsaya ne kawai a kusa da MiG-25 - za ka san an kashe kudi kan wadanda ke tsaye cikin ciyawa a farfajiyar gidan adana kayan tarihi sojoji na Rasha, ta haka za ka samu tabbaci kan irin aikin da ya yi.

Kirar MiG-25 na da matukar girma.

A tsawonsa na kafa 64 (mita 19.5), da kadan ya gaza kai wa tsawon jirgin yakin luguden bam da aka yi amfani da shi a yakin duniya na biyu, 'Lancaster bomber.'

Girman jirgin da ake bukatar dauke da injuna mai shan mai yawa da zai bashi damar aiki.

"Kirar MiG-25 zai iya daukar abu mai nauyin laba dubu 30 (kilogiram dubu 13 da 600)," inji Trimble.

Karfe mai nauyi da aka kera gangar jikinsa shi ne dalilin da ya sa kirar MiG-25 ke da manyan fuka-fuki - ba wai don ya yi artabu da jiragen yakin Amurka ba, amma kawai don ya samu tsayawa tsaf a cikin iska.

Kirar nau'ukan MiG an tsara su ne yadda za su tashi da gudu kimarsu ta kai ga Mach 2.5, inda ake nusar da su zuwa ga abin da ake son su cimmmasa da karfi, ta hanyar sakon na'urar gano abubuwa masu wucewa da ke kasa.

Idan suna daidai mil 50 (kilomita 80), na'urarsu ta ciki da ke hango abubuwa za ta karbi aikinta, sannan za su iya harba makamai masu linzami, wanda bisa la'akari da girman kirar MiG sun kai nisan kafa 20 (mita 6)

Cikin shekara ta 1970 shugabannin tsaron Amurka ba su san komai ba game da karfin aikin kirar MiG - kodayake sun yi masa laqabi da "Foxbat."

Don shiga gaban Blackbird na Amurka, an kera MiG bayan da aka yi bincike kan samufurinsa, wanda ba ya dauke da makami, amma yana da kyamarori da maganadisun sunsune-sunsune.

Ba don nauyin makamai masu linzami da na'urar hange, wannan nau'in da ya zama sakayau (babu nauyi) - kuma zai iya tashi da gudun gaske tamkar kirar Mach 3.2.

Wannan shi ne kirar samfurin da Isra'ila ta gano a shekara ta 1971.

Amma a farkon shekara ta 1970, jiga-jigan harkokin tsaron Amurka ba su san komai ba game da karfin aikin kirar MiG, duk da cewa, sun yi masa lakabin 'Foxbat."

Sun san shi ne kawai daga dushi-dushin hotunan da aka dauko daga sama ta hanyar wulkitawar na'urar hange ta saman tekun Mediterranean.

Sai dai kuma in wani ya shiga hannunsu, don haka wannan ke nuni da cewa kirar MiG na nan da cukurkudadden al'amarin barazana.

Wannan shi ne, sai bayan da matukin jirgin yakin Sobiyat da takaici ya kama shi ya aiwatar da manufarsa.

Viktor Belenko ya zama abin koyi ga 'yan kasar tarayyar Sobiyat.

An haife shi ne bayan an kammala yakin duniya na biyu, a kasan tsaunukan sassan kasar da ke da iyakar tsakanin Turai da Asiya (Caucasus).

Hakkin mallakar hoto CIA Museum
Image caption Victor Balenko yana da shaidar zama dan kasar Rasha

Ya shiga aikin soja, inda ya samu kwarewa a matsayin matukin jirgin yaki - aiki ne da ke tattare da kwarin gwiwa idan an kwatanta da na matsakaicin dan Sobiyat.

Amma Belenko ya cika da takaici.

Mahaifin guda ne da ke fuskantar rabuwar aure.

Ya fara bijiro wa kansa tambaya kan yanayin al'ummar Sobiyat, da kuma ko mummunar illar Amurka ta kai ta Gwamnatin Kwamunisanci. "Farfagandar Sobiyat a lokacin ta nuna ku a matsayin al'ummar da zuciyarsu ta gurbatatta," kamar yadda Belenko ya bayyana a wata hirarsa da mujalla a shekara ta 1996.

"Amma ina da tambayoyi a tunanina."

Belenko ya fahimci cewa sabon babban jirgin da ya samu horo a kai shi zai ba shi damar tserewa.

A lokacin yana aiki a sansanin jiragen saman soja na Chuguyevka Airbase a Primorsky Krai da ke kusa da gabashin birnin Vladivostok.

Kasar Japan na da nisan mil 400 (kilomita 644) daga wurin.

Sabon jirgin kirar MiG na iya tashi da gudu, kuma ya cilla koli, amma manyan injinasa biyu da ke shan dimbin gas na nuni da cewa jirgin na iya yin tafiya mai nisan gaske - ba lallai ne nisan ya iya danganawa da sansanin sojan saman Amurka ba.

Don ya kauce wa na'urorin soja hango abubuwa a Sobiyat da Japan, Belenko ya yi tafiya ne kasa-kasa - kimanin qafa 100 a saman teku.

A ranar 6 ga Satumba Belenko ya tasdhi sama tare da abokan aikinsa da suke samun horo.

Babu daya daga cikin jiragen MiG da ke dauke da makamai.

Tuni ya sava hanya, kuma jirginsa na MiG na shaqe da mai a tankinsa.

Ya rabu da gungun, kuma cikin mintoci kaxan ya fice daga da'irar karvar saqonni, inda ya nufi Japan.

Don kauce wa na'urorin hangen sojan Sobiyat da na Japan, Belenko ya tashi ne qasa-qasa - tsawon kimanin qafa 100 (mita30) a saman teku. Lokacin da ya nausa sosai cikin sararin samaniyar Japan, sai ya qara daga jirgin MiG zuwa kafa dubu 20 (mita dubu 6), ta yadda za a iya hango shi a Japan.

Jami'an Japan sun cika da mamakin wannan jirgi da ba su gane kansa ba, amma ga shi na'urar rediyon karbar sakonnin Belenko ta kama wasu tashshi daban. Mayakan Japan sai suka fantsama, amma a lokacin Belenko ya yiwo kasa gajimare, inda ya samu lullubi. Ya bace wa na'urar hange ta Japan.

Hakkin mallakar hoto iStock
Image caption Lokacin da matukin jirgin Viktor Belenko ya tsere shekara 40 da suka wuce, ya yi hakan ne a jirgin baduhun Sobiyat - kirar MiG-25

Duk tsawon wannan lokaci, matukin jirgin Sobiyat na tafiya a sama ne bisa kintace, gwargwadon abin da ya iya tunawa daga taswirar da ya yi nazari kafin tasowarsa. Belenko dai ya yi nufin zuwa sansanin sojan sama na Chitose ya sauka, amma da mansa ya fara yin kasa, sai ya nemi filin jirgi mafi kusa. Wannnan shi ne dalilin da ya sa ya sauka a Hakdodate

Kwatsam sai Jami'an Japan suka samu matukin jirgin da ya tsero - da jirgin yakin da ya shammaci hukumomin asirin Yammacin Turai.

Japan kadai ta san abin da suka rika yi wajen tarairayar saukar ban mamaki da jirgi kirar MiG ya yi musu.

Kwatsam kawai sai filin jirgin saman Hakodate ya cika da jami'an harkokin asiri. Hukumar leken asirin Amurka ta CIA ta kasa gaskata wannan sa'a da ta samu.

Wannan jirgi kirar MiG an yi masa bincike yadda ya kamata, bayan da aka matsar da shi zuwa sansanin sojan sama da ke kusa.

"Bayan da aka yi wa MiG-25 daidai aka yi masa nazarin kwakwaf tsawon makonni, sai suka gano hakikanin abin da zai iya," inji Trimble.

Sobiyat ba ta kera wani "hamshakin jirgin yaki" da hukumar tsaron Pentagon ke tsoro ba, a cewar mai tattara bayanan kayan tarihin jiragen sama (Smithsonian curator) Roger Connor, amma wani jirgi ne mai wuyar sha'ani da aka kera don wani aiki na musamman.

"Kirar MiG ba jirgin yaki ba ne da ke da matukar tasiri a wajen faffatawa," inji Connor. "Jirgi ne mai tsada da wuyar sha'ani, kuma ba shi da wani tasiri wajen gwabza yaki."

Akwai sauran matsaloli. Tashi da jirgi kirar Mach 3 na nuni da matukar tursasawa ga injina.

Kirar Lockheed SR-71 ya warware wannan matsalar ta hanyar yi masa tsinin baki a gaban injina, abin da ke danna iska kasa sosai ta yadda ba za lallata injin ba.

Kuma za a tursasa iska ta fita ta baya, ta yadda zai samu karin karfin tashi.

Kirar MiG da Isra'ila ta yi kokarin shawo kansa da Mach 3.2 a shekarar 1971 ya lalata injinansa ta wannan hanyar.

Na'urar da ke juya injin MiG na zuke iska ta yadda za ta taimaka wajen kona mai.

Ya kan tashi sama da mita dubu 2 a awa (kilomita dubu uku da 200 a awa).

An gargadi matukan MiG-25 cewa ka dasu zartar da Mach 2.8; Kirar MiG da Isra'ila ta yi yunkurin shawo kansa da Mach 3.2 a shekara ta 1971 ya lalata injin ta wannan hanyar, amma an yi sa'ar komowa sansaninsa.

Abin damuwar da aka yi hasashen aukuwarsa game da MiG-25 shi ya sanya Amurka ta himmatu wajen kera sabon jirgi, al'amarin da ya haifar da kirar F-15 Eagle, jirgin yaki da aka kera mai gudu, kuma ana iya juya akalarsa tamkar yadda aka so kasancewar MiG shekara 40 baya, har yanzu F-15 yana aiki.

Daga bisani, an gano cewa MiG da Yamma ta firgita da shi, ba wani abu ba ne, "illa damisar takarda.'

Babbar na'urar hangenta kimarta ba ta kai ta Amurka ba, saboda maimakon abubuwan sakonnin rediyo, sai aka yi amfani da tsofaffin bututu (wata fasahar kere-kere da ke hana sinadaran lantarki da maganadisu su ketata ta hanyar fashewar nukiliya).

Wannan babban inji yana matukar bukatar mai mai yawa al'amarin da ya mayar da kirar MiG koma-baya. Zai iya tashi nan da nan cikin sauri, ya tashi ya nausa a mike ya harba makami ko daukar hotuna.

Wannan shi kawai bayaninsa.

Kirar MiG da Tarayyar Sobiyat ta boye wa duniya tsawon shekaru an sake harharda shi, sannan aka dora a jirgin ruwa don mayar da shi tarayyar Sobiyat.

Gwamnatin Japan ta bukaci Sobiyat ta biya ta Dala dubu 40 kudin dako da diyyar lalata filin jirgin saman Hakodate da Belenko ya yi.

Tamkar dai Usaini Bolt ne, in ba Usain Bolt ba wane ne ke tseren da bai kai na masu gasar tsere, a cewar Roger Cannor, mai tattara bayanan kayan tarihin sufurin jiragen sama na Smithsonian Air & Space Museum.

Ba da dadewa ba aka gano cewa kirar MiG da ake tsoro ba zai iya shawo kan jirgin yakin Amurka kirar SR-71, daya daga cikin jiragen da aka yi nufin shan kansu.

"Bambanci tsakanin MiG da SR-71 ba gudu kadai ne ba, har da gasar tseren dogon zango, " inji Connor.

"Kirar MiG ta kafa ta cilla da gudu.

Tamkar dai Usain Bolt, in ba Usain Bolt wane ne zai mayar da kansa baya a lokacin da yake zakaran gasar tsere."

Duk da wadannan nakasun ba a daina kera MiG ba, har aka samar da fiye da Dubu da 200 MiG-25.

Lakabin 'Foxbat' ya zama abin alfahari ga sojan saman Sobiyat, wadanda suka ga alfanu fito da jirgi mafi gudu na biyu a duniya.

Aljeriya da Siriya ana sa ran suna amfani da su har zuwa yau.

Indiya ta yi amfani da wani sabon samfuri da ta samu gagarumar nasararsa tsawon shekara 25; an dakatar da amfani da su ne a shekara ta 2006 saboda rashin kayan gyara.

Tsoron kirar MiG da aka yi ta yi kyakkyawan tasiri, a cewar Trimble.

"Kafin shekara ta 1976, (Amurka) ba a san cewa ba za ta iya shan kan kirar SR-71, al'amarin da ya hana su shawagi a sararin samaniyar Sobiyat tsawon wancan lokacin.

Sobiyat ta yi matukar lura da jiragen da ke yada zango a kasarta."

Belenko bai koma Tarayyar Sobiyat da jirgin yakinsa da aka ciccira ba.

Wannan babban dan gudun hijira an ba shi dama ya koma kasar Amurka, inda ya zama cikakken dan kasa tare da amincewar Shugaban Amurka Jimmy Carter, inda ya zama injiniya jirgin sama, kuma kwararren mai bayar da shawara ga rundunar sojan saman Amurka.

Katin shaidarsa da takardar bayanan da ya like a makarin kokon gwiwa lokacin da ya tashi a saman tekun Japan yanzu an baje su a gidan kayan tarihi na Hukumar leken asirin Amurka ta CIA da ke birnin Washington DC.

Nakasun kirar MiG da zuwan jirgin yakin Amurka kirar F-15, shi ya ingiza masu zayyana a tarayyar Sobiyat suka fito da sabuwar zayyana.

Trimble ya ce wannan lamari shi ya haifar da samuwar kirar Su-27 da abokan hamayyar MiG Sukhoi suka fito da shi.

An kera shi ne ta hanyar inganta dimbin samfurin kirar.

Wannan shi ne hakikanin jirgin da Pentagon ta damu da shi a farkon shekara ta 1970 ga gudu da karfin tashi - sannan sababbin samfurin kirarsa ta yiwu su ne jiragen yaki mafi nagarta a yau, kamar yadda ya ce.

Hakkin mallakar hoto US Defence department

Karshen labarin kirar MiG bai zo ba.

Domin an inganta zayyanarsa har aka samar da kirar MiG-31, wani jirgin yaki mai cukurkudaddun na'urorin sansano bayanai, na'urar hange mai karfi da managartan injina.

"Kirar MiG-31 ita ta cimma cikakkiyar manufar da ta sanya aka kera MiG-25 don ya cimmawa," a cewar Trimble.

Kirar MiG-31 ya fara aiki ne shekaru kadan kafin karshen yakin cacar baki, kuma daruruwansa har yanzu suna yin sintiri a kan maka-makan iyakokin Rasha.

Masu bin kadin al'amura sun samu dammar ganin qirar MiG-31 a baje kolin jiragen sama, ko da yake mafi yawan kayan da ke aikinsa an kange su.

Baya ga wannan, babu wani matukin jirgin Rasha da ya taba yanke irin wannan kudiri saboda wani dalili, har ta nemi zuwa gudun hijira a wajen wannan hamshakiyar kasa, ya kuma tashi a kirar MiG zuwa filin saukar jirage kasar wajen da ba a zata ba.