Sirrin rayuwa ’yan Tibet da ke can a ‘saman duniya’

Tibetan people Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Dubban shekaru mutane na zaune a tsaunukan Tibet, amma sai kwanan nan masana kimiyya suka gano sirrin rayuwarsu (Credit: Getty Images)

A wani lokaci da ya shude, iyalin wani mutum na rayuwa can a kololuwar tudun duniya, inda suke kallon taurari. Suna rayuwa a kan tsaunin Tibet, mai tsawon kilomita 4,200 (kafa 14,100) daga doron ƙasa, a wani wuri da aka fi sani da suna Chusang. Nan suke kira gida!

Ko da yake, dadin rayuwar bai kama kafar zama a wuraren da ke cikin kwari ba, wannan yanki shi ma yana da tasa burgewa. Sakamakon torokon ƙarƙashin ƙasa da ke tasowa don tokare tsaunuka, zafin bazara a sararin ƙasa na samar da wani yanayin ban-iska, idan an kwatanta da iskar hunturu. Da dare kuwa, iyalin kan hura wuta a wani kwararo, don jin dumin wani makadaicin balbalin haske a cikin duhu.

Tun tuni wutar ta mutu, amma zuri'ar ta bar wa duniya wani tarihi. Don kuwa yayin da suke tafiya da wasanni, sun bar sawu guda 19 na kafafu da hannu dambare cikin busasshen tabo kuma ya adanu har zuwa yau.

Bisa la'akari da girman sawayen, da kuma hannuwa da kafafuwan da suka yi su - iyalin rukuni ne na mutum shida, biyu daga ciki yara ne. amma ko su wane ne su? Kuma me ya kai su can saman tsaunuka? Shin neman abinci ne? Ko farauta? Ko dai ƙawa ce kawai irin ta dan'adam, da kullum yake leƙe-leƙen sabon wurin zama?

Sawayensu ba su bar amsoshin irin wadannan tambayoyi ba. Abin da kawai aka sani, kamar yadda wani nazari a shekara ta 2017 ya bayyana shi ne an yi sawayen Chusang ne tsakanin shekara 12, 700 da 7,400 da suka wuce, abin da ya zama daya daga cikin kufai mafi dadewa da aka sani a tsaunin Tibet.

Sai dai, wani abu na daban game da zuri'ar Chusang shi ne kebewarsu, a cewar Mark Aldenderfer wani masanin kimiyyar al'adu daga Jami'ar California da ke Merced kuma daya cikin marubuta wannan bincike, Rayuwa a tsakiyar tsauni, su dai kawai ba za su iya faman hawa da sauka daga tsauni lokacin sauyawar yanayi kamar sauran mutanen Tibet a wancan zamani ba.

Sukan zauna tsawon shekara dafa'an, suna jure wa mamakon ruwan ƙanƙara da kadawar iska da shafewar tsaunuka da kankara a lokacin hunturu.

Yadda suka iya rayuwa a wannan yanayi, babban abin ta'ajibi ne. Yayin da dumin wuta ke ba su kariya daga sanyi, zuri'ar Chusang ba za su iya samun mafaka daga wani gawurtaccen ƙalubalen rayuwa a kan tsaunin ba, iska tana yin ƙaranci lokacin da mutum ke ƙara tafiya zuwa sama.

A yankin da ya haura mita 4000 (kafa 13,000) daga doron ƙasa, duk numfashi yana ƙunshe da iskar oxygen ƙasa da kashi daya cikin uku idan an kwatanta da numfashi a banƙasa. Sai dai can a cikin jikkunansu, a jininsu da ƙwayoyin halittarsu, akwai wata baiwa ta daban irin ta mutanen da, wadda ke kare su daga siririyar iskar da suka gina gidansu don rayuwa a can sama.

Duk mai hawa tsauni zai iya bayani kan sukewar numfashin da ke da alaka da hawa tudu. Ba wai don iskar tana da ƙarancin oxygen ba ne, kashi 21 cikin 100 ne cikinta a duk inda ka tsaya a duniya. Sai dai karfin iska na raguwa idan kana ƙara tafiya ko tashi sama daga doron kasa.

Akwai hanyoyi da dama na tunkarar irin wannan sauyi, sai dai, fiye da zuri'a daruruwa, mutanen da ke zaune a yankin tsaunukan Bolivia (Andean altiplano) na Kudancin Amurka wanda ya tashi daga Peru zuwa Bolivia na da fankacecen ƙirji mai siffar randa da ke kumbura idan sun bushi iska.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Da farko masu bincike sun yi mamaki ganin yadda al'ummar Tibet ke rayuwa ba tare da muhimman al'amura da suka zama dole don gudanar da rayuwa a tsaunuka ba

Kuma tun a karshen shekarun 1800, masana kimiyya suka gano cewa jininsu na cike da jajayen ƙwayoyin halittu da sinadaran da ke jigilar iska da kuma curin kwayoyin zarra da ke kunshe da oxygen a cikinsu.

Idan iska ta yi ƙaranci, sai jini ya yi kauri don ƙara yawan iskar oxygen ta yadda za ta sarrafa kwayoyin halitta a jiki. Ana kuma samun wannan dauki na bunkasar ƙwayoyin halittun jini a jikin duk wani mutum da ke ƙoƙarin hawa tsauni. "Idan an kwatanta da mutanen tuddan Andean, muna da kamanceceniya matuƙa," a cewar Cynthia Beall, ƙwararriyar mai nazarin al'ummomi da al'adu a Jami'ar Case Western Reserve ta Ohio. "Ba duk ba, amma dai daukacin irin abu guda ne."

Tun da kusan dukkan binciken da aka yi game da al'ummar da ke rayuwa a yankunan tudu sun fi mayar da hankali ne kan tsaunukan Andes na Kudancin Amurka, ana kallon tsarin samar da kwayoyin halittun jini a matsayin wani dauki ga karancin iskar oxygen har kusan tsawon karni biyu. Kawai sai a karshen shekarun 1970 da farkon shekarun 1980 ne, bayan zuwa kauye bakwai a Nepal, sai Cynthia Beall ta fara gano cewa wannan ra'ayi ba ya aiki a kan mutanen Tibet.

Da farko ba su da fankacecen kirji, amma kuma ga alama suna numfashi cikin sauri fiye da mutanen tsaunin Andes. Na biyu kuma, a lokacin rani na shekarar 1981, Cynthia da abokan aikinta sun gano cewa mutanen Tibet na da karancin kwayar jini mai kunshe da sinadarin abinci mai gina jiki, akasari daidai da na mutanen da ke rayuwa a doron kasa.

Ko da yake, suna rayuwa a inda ake kira da 'saman duniya' tsarin yadda jikinsu ke aiki, abin ban mamaki yana kamanceceniya da mutanen da ba su taba barin doron kasa ba.

"Wannan abu ne da ke haifar da dar-dar da farko," in ji Cynthia Beall. "Sai Ka ji, kai! Ko dai ba mutanen da suka dace na yi amfani da su a gwajin ba? Ko dai awon da na yi ba daidai ba ne? Ko na tsallake wani abu?"

Amma bayan komawata Tibet da Nepal a karo da dama, don tattaro karin bayanai a wasu kauyuka. Abin da ta gano ya kara tallafar sakamakonta ne na farko: a dogayen tsaunuka, akwai karancin iskar oxygen, mutanen Tibet sun rage adadin iskar oxygen da jininsu ke dauka.

Ta yaya za a yi haka? Abin da tashin farko ake gani wani batu mai matukar cin karo da juna - kada ma a yi batun hatsarin da mai yiwuwa yake da shi - tabbas kuma hakan ya yi ma'ana, inda yake kare mutanen Tibet daga munanan illoli da ke tattare da rayuwar tudu.

Daya daga cikin alfanun hakan, alal misali shi ne rage fadi-tashi a hanyoyin jininsu. "Idan kana da dumbin kwayar jini mai kunshe da sinadarin abinci mai gina jiki sai jininka ya kara kauri, hakan kuma ka iya yin matukar illa," a cewar Tatum Simonson ta Jami'ar California da ke San Diego. "Kana zubo wannan kakkauran jini mai kirtib ta jijiyoyinka gaba daya. Kana kure zuciyarka."

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Dumbin masu yawon shakatawa na zuwa Tibet, yayin da 'yan kasar ke iya rayuwa da karancin iskar oxygen, masu kai ziyara kuwa kan yi fama da rashin lafiya.

Sakamakon da za a iya samu na wannan ƙarin gajiyarwa a daukacin hanyoyin zirga-zirgar abinci shi ne larurar sarƙewar numfashi mai ta'azzara. Wadda ake kiranta farko a shekarar 1925 da sunan wani likita dan kasar Peru, Carlos Monge Medrano ko CMS (ko kuma cutar Monge). Cutar ka iya far wa mutane da ke rayuwa cikin farin ciki a yankunan da ke kan tudu tsawon shekaru.

"Babu masaniya ƙarara kan abin da ke haifar da ita," in ji Cynthia Beall. "Sai dai mutane kan suƙe, su kasa numfashi, inda labbansu da yatsunsu kan sauya zuwa shudi, har ta kai ga sun gaza yin aiki, sun kasa yin barci - sun kamu da tsananin rashin lafiya."

Ga larurar suƙewa ta wucin gadi, wato hanyar warkar da larurar sarƙewar numfashi mai ta'azzara, ita ce tsinkewar jini, da karuwar iskar oxygen. Sai dai wannan ba waraka ba ce. Wasu abubuwa sun riga sun taru a huhu ko kuma a kwakwalwa ko kuma kakkauran jini ka iya cunkushe wani muhimmin bangare na jiki. Kuma mummunan abin da ka iya biyo baya shi ne mutuwa.

A tsaunin Andes da ke Peru, sama da kashi 18 cikin 100 na al'ummar yankin sun kamu da larurar sarƙewar numfashi mai ta'azzara a wani lokaci na rayuwarsu. Sai dai a tsaunin Tibet, da kyar idan adadin ya haura kashi 1 cikin 100.

Tabbas tsinkewar jini na taimakawa wajen rage kasadar kamuwa da cutar sarƙewar numfashi ta CMS, sai dai tabbas ba shi ne kadai dalilin da ya sa mutanen Tibet ke rayuwa cikin farin ciki a irin wannan yanayi ba. A shekarar 2005, ga misali Cynthia Beall da abokan aikinta sun gano cewa mutanen Tibet na fitar da iskar nitric oxide wadda ke fadada kafofin zagayawar jini da gudanarsa sabanin mazauna tsaunukan Andes da kuma na doron kasa.

Asali ana bayyana shi da sirrin rayuwa cikin kwanciyar hankali, wannan iska tana fadada jijiyoyin cikin huhu da kuma sauran sassan jiki, inda jini yake gudana kuma tafiyar iskar oxygen na karuwa.

Kamar yadda Simonson ta nunar, to idan mutanen Tibet ba sa bukatar iskar oxygen da yawa kamar sauran mutane fa? To idan ƙwanjinsu ya fi kazar-kazar idan ana aiki da su fa? "Mai yiwuwa tun tuni fasalinsu ya dace matuka ta yadda ba sa bukatar karin jajayen kwayoyin jini da kuma kwayoyin jini masu sinadaran abinci mai gina jiki," a cewarta.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Yawan sauyin kwayoyin halitta da ake samu ne ke bai wa al'ummomin damar rayuwa da hayayyafa a irin wannan muhallin

Ko da yake, ta ziyarci tsaunukan Tibet lokuta da dama saboda bincikenta, Simonson ta bibiyi tarihin wannan yanki a dakin gwaje-gwajenta. A matsayinta na mai nazarin kwayoyin halittun gado, tana iya karade daukacin kwayoyin halittun kowanne mutumin Tibet don gano tushen iya sajewa irin nasu ga rayuwar tudu.

A shekarar 2010, ta hanyar kwatanta daukacin kwayoyin halittun mutanen Tibet 30 da al'ummar Han cikin kasar China a Beijing, Simonson ta iya tantance kwayoyin gadon mutanen da ke da alaka da rayuwa a tudu.

Tun da al'ummomin biyu suna da alaka ta ƙuƙut, sai dai kawai daya ya saba rayuwa a tsaunuka tsawon shekaru dubbai, don haka duk wani muhimman bambanci tsakanin tsarin daukacin kwayoyin halittarsu mai yiwuwa ya zama jigon sajewarsu ga wannan sauyi a muhalli ciki har da yanayi mai ƙarancin iskar oxygen.

Ba Simonson ce kadai ta fara irin wannan kokari ba. A cikin mako biyu a shekarar 2010, an samun rukunin masu bincike uku, kowannensu ya wallafa wani nazari da ya gano cewa akwai kwakkwaran bambancin kwayoyin halittun gado tsakanin al'ummar guda biyu.

Fannin nazarin daukacin kwayoyin halittun mutum ya zama mai sauki bisa la'akari da sigar ire-iren mutane: a karkashin fata, can a cikin kwayoyin halitta, muna da kamanni daya. "akasari, babu wani gagarumin bambanci a tsakanin jama'a," a cewar Rasmus Nielsen na Jami'ar California da ke Berkeley. "Bambancin kwayoyin gado, wadanda galibi suka sha bamban tsakanin gungun mutane sun bambanta ne a dunkule kan al'amuran da suka shafi launin gashi da ido da fata."

Bambance-bambancenmu kadan ne kuma suna nan a saman jiki, can a ƙasan fata cikin ƙwayar halittarmu kusan kamanninmu daya ne. Daga irin wannan gagarumar kamanceceniya, ana iya kallon muhimman sauye-sauyen kwayoyin gado tsakanin jama'a dan ƙanƙanin abu, amma wani tsani ne fahimtar sirrin daukacin kwayoyin halittun rayuwa.

Wannan tamkar na nuna cewa 'yan Tibet sun gaji ƙwayar gadonsu ce daga wani nau'in mutane daban. Kuma tabbas wannan shi ne abin da ya faru.

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