Kun san halittun da suka zafin nama a ko wanne zamani?

Daga Ella Davies

6 gaYunin 2017

Al'amura kadan ne ke bukatar karsashin sinadarin kuzari tamkar babban fada, ko da kai mai goyon bayan'yan wasa ne da ke tauna gurguru gurus-gurus. Sai dai idan hakikanin mafadata ka ke nema sai ka dubi halittu, inda zakakuransu ke yin gasa ba don karramawa ba; suna fada ne domin tsira a rayuwa.

Wadanda ke kai mummunan bugu a doron duniya akwai yiwuwar su yi matukar bayar da mamaki, ba kawai saboda hanzari da fasaharsu ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Odontodactylus scyllarus) (Credit: Georgette Douw
Image caption Kwaron dawisun mantis shrimp

Wadanda a kimiyyance aka tabbatar sun fi saurin kai naushi halittun ruwa ne wasu nau'ukan kwari crustaceans da ake yi wa lakabi da 'mantis shrimps,' inda sukan keta ruwa, inda sukan bulla karamin rami da ke samar da zafi da haske da kara.

Wasu daga nau'ukan halittun suna da tsini mai kama da fatsa ko kugiya, yayin da wasu ke kai hari da kokararshi. Idan suna tsare sanannen al'amari ne sukan fasa akwakun gilashi da hauri guda.

Dimbin kwarin gida kan yi karo da wutsiyar ido ko tsinin zaren kai a hade.

Dakin bincike na Sheila Patek da ke Jami'ar Duke a Arewacin Carolina ya kware wajen nazarin dabba mai hanzari da kazar-kazar.

Gungun ma'aikatan Patek sun gano cewa kwaron ruwa mai adon dawisu na mantis shrimps samar da tarin karfi sau 2,500 rubin nauyin jikinsu a kasa da kasha guda na dakika 800.

Patek ya yi nuni da cewa tsinin zirin kugiyoyin kansu ne sirrin zafin nama mai ban mamaki. Domin cikin kowane zirrin kan cinnaka mai kugiya (mantis shrimp) akwai sille hudu a hade da ke tattara karfi.

Daya daga cikin mnahadar na yin harbi na gaba, inda take tara karfi kafin ta kai farmaki, ta hanyar cilla kugiyar.

"Tamkar mai harbin kibau, cinnaka mai kugiya yana jinjina karfin da ya tattara cikin shiri kafin a kawo hari, sai ya kai farmaki," in ji Patek.

Cinnaku masu kugiya sukan yi gasar matsayi a muhallinsu. Sai dai Patek da abokan aikinsa sun kwatanta wadannan al'amura a matsayin "ala'adar horar da jiki ce" sabanin gasar karfin kisa.

Cinnakun da ke gasa kan yi wa juna kawanya, kuma ba sa harbi har sai ta kure. Da wuya su kafsa fada, in da da farko cinnakun ke kannade tsinin bindinsu don kare cikinsui.

Wanda ya samu nasar shi ne cinnaka mai kama da Rocky balboa, wanda zai iya jure wa mafi yawan haure-hauren.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Odontomachus sp.) (Credit: Solvin Zankl/naturepl.
Image caption Cinnaka mai kugiya

An gudanar da bincike kan kwarin da ake kira cinnaku masu kugiya a Patek.

Zomayen dawa na fafata fada a lokacin bazarar barbararsu.

Sukan yi fadan kwantar da tarzoma, inda suke damcewa da juna da tsinin fila-filan kansu don tantance mafi kimar daraja a shekarsu.

Mafi yawan kwarin da aka saba da su sukan gwabza da juna ta hanyar hada tsinin zirin kansu: wannan dabi'a an yi nazarinta a jikin kwari da curarrun kwari da kudan zuma.

Taba zirin tsinin kai ba ko da yaushe yake nuni da bata-kashi ba; alal misali, kudan zuma yana saurin taba zirin tsinin kai lokacin musayar abinci. Amma don nuna ko wane ne shugaba naushi ne manuniya.

A nazarin da aka gudanar a shekarar 2016, masu bincike sun yi amfani da na'urorin daukar hoto masu sauri wajen daukar hotunan kiwari masu kugiya, inda suke naushin juna da zirin

A jerin dabbobi masu da ake raino da shan mama, mafi shahara a zafin nama su ne zomayen daji masu launmin ruwan kasa (Lepus europaeus).

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Andy Rouse/naturepl.com)
Image caption Zomayen dajin Turai (Lepus europaeus) na dambe

Zomayen daji na fafata fada tsakaninsu da damina lokacin da suke fara barbara. Wannan shi ne asalin furucin "hauka kamar zomon dawa a watan Maris."

Da an dauka namijin zomon dawa ne kawai ke fada, inda sukan farmaki abokin adawarsu don samun ta-macen da za su yi wa Barbara.

Sai dai binciken zamani ya yi nuni da cewa karon-battar da suke fafatawa mata ne ke fara share musu fage, wadanda ma ba su fara barbara ba, don haka suke fada da mazan da ke sha'awarsu.

Ta-macen (zomayen dawa) na da takaitacen lokacin barbara da hayayyafa, shi ya sa mazan ke zame musu su jajirce.

Kangaro ma na kai harbi da kafa don kariyar kai, tamkar yadda dimbin masu yawo da karnuka a Austiraliya za su iya tabbatarwa.

A Austiraliya kasurar damtsen namijin kangaroo na nuni da zakuwarsa ta fafatawar son barbara.

Wani abin nazari da aka yanko daga Roger wani kangaroo da ke zaune a matattarasu a garin Alice Spring, ta yi matukar shahara ganin yadda ya rumurmutse bokitin mazubin abincinsa.

Kamar yadda wani bincike da aka gudanar cikin shekarar 2003 ya bayyana namijin kangaroo na samun kasurar damatsan kafufuwan gaba don zaben abokiyar barbara.

Namijin kangaroo kan yi mangara da cacumar junansu don yanke hukuncin cancantar barbara, kuma girman damtse na ba su fifikon damar cancanta.

Naushi da hauri nan ne ake tabbatar da kimar karfin kangaroo. A karon-battar abokan adawa, zakakurin ciki shi zai kada bindi da haura kafafu, tare da nuni da fikar faratan kofato.

Kangaroo na yi hauri da kafa a matsayin kariyar kai, kamar yadda masu yawo da karen da ba su yi sa'a ba ke tabbatarwa. In ana batun haure-hauren, hauri da kofato na tabbatar da nunin karfi.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Jouan & Rius/naturepl.com)
Image caption Gumurzun toka-tokar kangaroo da ake samu a gabashi (Macropus giganteus)

Duk wanda ya saba da dawakai ya san kadan suke iya yin hauri, musamman idan an zunguresu sukan harba kafafun baya

Haurin jakin dawa an yada jita-jitar cewa yana da matukar illa, amma babu wata hujja lamarin ya zama shaci-fadi kawai.

Jakunan dawa na da wuyar sha'ani in an kwatanta su da dawakai, ta yiwu wannan ne dalilin da ya sanya aka yada cewa haurinsu yana da matukar illa.

Babban tsuntsun sahara (secretarybird) ya yi kama da abin dariya, amma abincinsa dafin macizai.

Tim Caro na Jami'ar California Davis ya sarayar da dimbin lokacin aikinsa wajen gudanar da binciken jakunan dawa, har ta kai ga yana yin shiga irin ta jakin dawa don ya yi nazarinsu a kungurmin daji.

A littafinsa da ala wallafa a shekarar 2016 mai taken zanen jakin dawa (Zebra Stripes), ya kwatanta yadda jakunan dawa ke tunkararmasu kisan mummuke.

Hoton bidiyo ya nuna yadda jakunan dawa ke haurin zakuna a kirji, amma babu wata hujja ta kimiyya da ta tabbatar da cewa gaure-hauren na da mummunar illa.

Sauran miyagun dabbobi da ke turjiya kan kofato sun hada da jimina da rakumin dawa. Daukacinsu an samu bayanan da ke nuni da cewa suna hauri da jikkata manyan dabbobi masu kisan gilla.

Shirin doron duniya kashi na biyu (Planet Erath II) ya haska mana yadda rakumin dawa ke samun nasara a kan zaki ta hanyar yi masa kyakkyawan hauri.

Idan aka yi la'akari da masu zafin cizo wadanda ke kai musu rida ta baya, ba abin mamaki ba ne a ga wadannan dabbobin sin kai mummunan farmaki.

Duk da farmakin kariya da ake kaiwa manufar ba ta kisa ba ce, fiye da kauce wa cutarwa. Kuma samun damar kai bugu a gadon baya ko muka-muki na iya halakawa, sai dai mafi yawan haure-hauren dabarun arcewa ne da samun tsira.

Dangane da munanan haure-hauren da aka kai, sai mu yi la'akari da makasan da suka kawo rida, musamman wadanda abincinsu ke da wuyar sha'ani.

Hakkin mallakar hoto (Credit: Laurent Geslin/naturepl.com)
Image caption Tsuntsun sahara (secretarybird - Sagittarius serpentarius) mai ban tsoro

Kai-kawon da yake yi a tsirran saharar Afirka shi ya sa masu bincike kan dabba mai kisa ke yi mas alakabi da "mafadaciyar mikiyar da ke jangala doguwar kafa."

Tsuntsun sahara ta yiwu ya kasance abin ban dariya, amma abincinsa macizai masu dafi, inda yake kabo su da mummunan hauri a ka.

Jakunan dawa an san su da wuyar sha'ani in an kwatanta da dawakai da mutane ke juya akalarsu.

A binciken da aka gudanar a shekarar 2016, masana kimiyya sun auna kimar harba kafa da namijin tsuntun sahara da aka yi wa lakabi da Madeleine da aka kama ke yi, bisa wasu dalilai da ba a bayyana ba.

An gano cewa Medeleine na iya yin hauri da kafa sau biyar zuwa shida lokacin da yake tsaye da kimanin kashi goma na kiftawar idon mutum.

Wannan dai shi ne irin yanayin farautar da wasu daga cikin miyagun tsuntsaye ke yi: manyan tsuntsayen dab a sa tashi, wadanda suka rayu tsawon zamani a Amurta ta Kudu.

Nau'ukan wadannan tsuntsaye na "Mesembriornis"suna da karfafan kafafu, kamar yadda wani nazarin da ya bibiyi kadin balgatatttun kasusuwansu ya nuna.

Wannan ne ya zaburar da masana kimiyya suka yi nuni da cewa tsuntsaye na yi yin haurin da zai karya kashi don samu damarkwasar bargon kashin dabbar da suke son halakawa da cinyewa.

Akwai yiwuwar mu daina hankoron tashi kamar malam buda littafi ko shawagin kudan zuma, maimakon haka sai mu himmatu wajen kai bugu kamar kwaron ruwa ko hauri kamar tsuntsun.