Wanne irin tarnaki kwakwalwa ke fuskanta?

Abin da ake bukata shi ne karanta falsafa (tunanin halarto da al'amura) Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty Images
Image caption Abin da ake bukata shi ne karanta falsafa (tunanin halarto da al'amura)

Parashkev Nachev, masanin cututtukan kwakwalwa a Jami'ar Kwalejin Landan, ya ce ya soki lamirin makalar Owen ta shekarar 2006 ba don tababa ba, ko nakasun nazarin kiddiga, amma saboda kura-kuran sakamakon karkare aiki."Kodayake kwakwalwar da ke farke, idan ta halarto da tunanin kwallon tennis, al'amarin da ke zaburar da aiki, wannan ba yana nufin sigar aikin na nuni da farkarwar ba. Wannnan bangaren kwakwalwar za a iya farfado da shi ta hanyoyi da dama, a cewar Nachev tare ko ba tare da alakanta shi da farkarwa ba. Sannan ya yi kai-kawo kan cewa ba a bai wa Gillian hakikanin zabi ba ya yi tunanin buga kwallon tennis. Kawai dai tamkar yadda za a kasa samun motsi saboda nakasun daukar mataki ko yake matsayar kin amincewa, martanin kai tsaye kan umarni na iya zama fakawa ana sane ko motsin martani.

Abin da ake bukata shi ne karanta falsafa (tunanin halarto da al'amura) da karin bayanai, a cewar Owen. Bibiyar Kadin nazarin a shekarar 2010, Owen da Laureys da abokan aikinsu sun yi gwaji kan majiyata 54, wadanda a likitance aka tabbatar suna cikin halin langabu (rashin iya motsa gabbai) ko karancin farkawa; biyar daga ciikkin wadanda aka bibiya kadin lamarinsu a halin yanayii irin na Gillian. Hudu kuwa an kaddara suna cikin halin langabu ne aka kwantar da su a asibiti. Owen da Schiff da Laureys sun bibiyi wasu hanyoyi daban wajen bayar da bayanin abin da suka yi nazari akai, inda a misali suka tabbatar da crewa sassan kwwakwalwar da suka yi nazarinsu wajen tambayar majiyata za a iya farfado da su ta wasu hanyoyin. Sai dai makalar da aka wallafa a shekarar 2010 ta yi watsi da wadannan dabi'u na kaitsaye a matsayin dalilin da ke nuni da cewa: aikin farkarwar na daukar lokaci don nuni da cewa an yi nufin hakan ne. Owen ya yaba wa masu sukar lamirinsa. Domin sun zaburar da shi, inda a misali har ya bunkasa dabarun tambayar majiyata da kawai suka san yadda za su amsa. "Ba za ka iya magana da wanda bai san inda kansa yake ba- ba zai yiwu ba," inji shi. "Mun yi galaba a wannan takaddamar."

Tun da aka wallafa makalar Owen ta kimiyya a 2006, an yi ire-iren wannan nazari a Belgium da Birtnaiya da Amurka da Canada, al'amarin da ke nuni da cewa mafi yawan majiyatan da ke fama da langabewar rashin motsin sassan jiki a 'yan shekarun nan an yi kuskuren fahimtar lalurar da ke damunsu, inda Owen ya kiyasta a kalla kashi 20 cikin 100. Schiff, wanda ya bi kadin kura-kuran fahimtar cutar majiyata ta hanya daban, ya ci gaba. Binciken kwanan nan, a cewarsa kimanin kashi 40 cikin 100 na majiyatan da aka dauka suna fama da langabun jiki, da aka duba su da kyau, an ga suna dan fahimta halin da suke ciki. Daga cikin rukunin da aka dauka suna fama da langabewar sassan jiki su ne wadanda na'urar daukar hoto ta nuna za su iya isar da sako, don haka sai a duba su a matsayin majiyatan da jikinsu ya daure, kamar suna fadake (farke) ko sun dan farka, ya danganta kan yadda suke samun karsashin motsi ko langabewa.

A shekarar 20009 tawagar Laureys ta tuntubin asalin rrukunin majiyata 54, wadanda shi da Owen suka bi kladin lamarinsu, inda suka yi nazarin majiyata 23 tambayoyin dai amsasoshinsu 'e' koi 'a'a' ne. aiki ne da ba a saba yins aba; kaddara yin was an tennis na daukar 'e', kai-kawo a cikin gida na daukar 'a'a' Tsohon majiyacin da ya dade a dabaibayin langabun jiki tsawon shekara biyar, ya samu damar amsa biyar daga cikin tambayoyin shida da kyau, kan al'amuran da suka shafi rrayuwarsa ta da daukacin amsoshin sun yi daidai. Ko ya taba zuwa hutu wani wurrin kafin ya samu rauni? Ko kaza da kaza ne sunan mahaifinsa? Lamarin na da kayatarwa a cewar Laureys. "Mun yi matukar mamaki," a cewar Owen, wanda ya taimaka wajen gudanar da gwaji mai cin gashin kansa. "Ta hanyar nuna mana da ya yi ya san inda kansa yake, majiyaci na 23 ya samu sauyin makwanci daga "babu farfadowa" zuwa rukunin "kar a bari ya mutu.' Ko mun ceto rayuwarsa? A'a. ya ceci rayuwar kansa da kansa."

Nachev bai sauya ra'ayinsa ba, tun farkon sukar lamirin aikin Owen da ya yi, kuma ya gabatar da dalilansa a makalarsa da da aka wallafa a shelarar 2010. "A wajen kowane dan uwan mai fama da matsanancin langabun jiki da aka ba shi kwarin gwiwa mara tabbas, wani karin nauyin shi ne yarda da janye tarairayar kula da lafiyar majiyacin daga hannun wani, wanda aka cusa masa ra'ayin amincewa majiyacin na nan a raye," inji shi. "akwai matsalolin da ke tattare da kwarin gwiwar rashin tabbaci."

"Daukacin abin da kafafen yada labarai suka bayyana dangane da lamarin ban gamsu da shi ba," kamar yadda ya fada mini.

Laureys da Owen da Schiff sun shafe tsawon lokaci tare da iyalai don fahimtar al'amuran da suka fi damunsu. Owen ya shawo kan al'amuran, saboda tsawon shekarun gogewarsa a aiki ta yasa yakan yi abin da duk za su iya. "Wadannan majiyata an sha cutar da su tsawon shekaru

Owen ya jajirce kan cewa ;ikitoci hakki ne da ya rataya a kansu da su tabbatar da kyakkyawar mafitar warkar da majiyaci, koda sakamakon zai kasance abin tuhuma da zargi da rashin tabbaci da damuwa. "Dole ne mu bai wa kowane kyakkyawar damar samun sauki, saboda sai mu ba su cikakkiyar kulawa wadda ta dace da cutar da aka gano," kamar yadda ya jajirce akai..

Tarnakin kwakwalwa

Dabarar tantance aikin kwakwalwa ana ta kokarin inganta ta akai-akai. Owen da Lorina Naci sun fito da managarciyar hanyar tattaunawa da majiyata, ta yadda za su tattara hankalinsu lokacin da na'urar daukar hoto ta scanner ke aiki a kansu. Da farko ana tambayar 'e' ko a'a, sai a dauki furucin Kalmar "e" da aka maimaita da dama, sia a gwamata da da daiuke hankali da lambobi harbutsai, sannan a sake kwata hakan da kalmar "a'a. Wadanda aka bi kadin lamarinsu za su kirga amsoshin da suka yi daidai da suka ji, sai su manta da wadanda ba su yi daidai ba. Wannan kokarin juya tunani (zabar abin da ake son ji da mayar da hankali kai) ya fito karara lokacin da Naci da Owen ya yi nazarin hotunan kwwakwalwa, ta yarda za a bankado matakin da suka dauka bisa la'akari da sauyin da aka samu daidi lokacin da aka samu kullinm laka da hankalin kwakwalwa. Da aka sake bibiyar nazarin ta hanyar amfani da wannan dabarar, scott routley ya yi nuni da cewa ya san sunansa, kamar yadda ya bambanta da da na wani, kuma a asibiti yake sabanin wnai wuri, inda ya nuna cewa ya yi babbar makaranta al'amarin da ke nuni da cewa ya san inda kansa yake.

Duk da haka akwai suaran matsaloli da ba a warware su ba. Bayan bin Kadin cutar da ke damun majiyaci, ba a yi katabus wajen gano aikin kwakwalwar wadannan majiyata ba, a cewar Schiff.Al'amura kadan ke nuni da cewa a farke suke amma ba za su iya halarto yin kwallon tennis ba da sauransu, nlokacin da majiya jkadan da ke fama da langabun jiki ke iya yi. Sauran tarnakin magunguna ke haifar da su a lokacin gwaji ko bambance-bambancen da kee tsakanin majiyata wadanda aka kasa su rukuni-rukuni (don hana likitoci amfani da da dabara iri guda a kan ,majiyaci guda a akai-akai). Dangane da abin da ya shafi matashin majiyata, akwai tarnaki kan yawan hotunan PET da za a iya yi musu a kayayadaden lokaci, saboda tantance rugugin sinadarai da za a yi wa jiki allurarsu.

Na'urar miliyoyin Dala da ke bin kadin hotuna mai tattarewa da maganadisu ba su dace da majiyata wadanda jikinsu ya kamu da tankwarewar nama ko daurewa da karafuna da allurai. Amma al'amari mafi alfanu an fara tsara abin da ya fi dacewa, inda Laurreys ke nazarin gwalewar ido, wanda ke da alaka da tunani (gwalewar ido na kara bijiro da tunanin majiyaci, yayin da budde idanu a hankali da alaka da aikace-aikacen kwakwalwa da suka hada da cimma matsaya). Wata dabarar ita ce cushen sullen tartsatsin lantarki "electrodes" a hannun majiyaci don auna "aikin marikin" nama da aka zabaurar da aikinsa idan aka bukaci motsawa.

Ta yiwu dabara mafi dacewa auna tartsatsin lantarki a kwakwalwa, wato "EEG", wanda ke gano kai-kawon lantarrkin a kwwakwalwa ta hanyar amfani da sullen 'electrodes' da aka lika a fatar kai. Wannan abu ne sauki, in an kwatanta, mai sasukin dauka da kai-kawo cikin sauri (a daya bias dakika in an kwatanta da minti 8 na kalato bayanai da maganadisun hotuna na fMRI), wannan na nufin rrukunin masu bincciken za su iya bijiro da tambayoyin bin kadin lamura ga mutane 200 cikin mintuna 30. Wannan dabarar za sa iya amfani da ita wajen tarairayar majiyata da ke ggirgizar farfadiya , ko wadanda aka yi wa cushen sullen (lantarki a hannu). "Yawan majiyatan da ke tattare da hadarin, farfado da su ba abu ne mai sauki ba," a cewar Owen, wanda tawagarsa ta tara kayan aiki a mota kirar jeep. "Mun tattara kayan aikinmu a motarmu kirar 'EEJeep' muka rika kai musu ziyara.

Daya daga cikin hanyoyi mafi ingganci don auna ayyukan kwakwalwar majiyata ita ce kai-kawon sakonnin jijiyoyi na 'electroencephalography,' EEG (Science Photo Library)

Tawagar Schiff na tababar kan ko tsarin kalato bayanan kai-kawo sakonnin kwakwalwa na EEG guda ne ke yin hakikanin aikin. "dole mutum ya yi taktsantsan ksan tasirin mataccen kifin salmon," a cewar Laureys, ind ayakee nuni da mataccen kifi da ya bayar da haske kan tarnakin da ke takaitata aikin kalato bayanan hotuna bissa tsarin fMRI. Dabarar na fama da amtsalar bambance hakikanin aikin kwakwalwa daga abin da ya haifar da 'kara', ala'amarin da ke nuni da cewa mataccen kifin salmon da ke ruwan Atlantic an saka shi cikin na'urrar daukar hoto (scanner) ya yi matukar tunani. "Ba ma son ksancewa masu zumudi game da matacccen kifi, a cewar Laureys, "amma, a wani bangaren, ba ma son zama masu ra'ayin rikau, inda za mu yi ta bibiyar alkaluman kididdiga kan cewa mu rasa wadannnan abubuwa.

Bayyanar abin da ke cikin duhu

A yau lamari ne da ke yiwuwa a halarto da tunanin yadda ake kasancewa tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa a matsayin tambayar bin Kadin lamarin yadda "kwakwalwa ke kasancewa" sabanin yadda "zuciya " ke kasancewa. Majiyaci kan kasance cikin dabaibayin langabun jiki sai dai kwakwalwarsa dda jijiyoyinta na aiki, sannan yana numfashi ba tare da taimako ba.. ta yiwu suna da dan alamun farfadowa, 'yar damar murrmurewarsu kadan ce. Idan an kwatatanta tsarin daukar hoto na PET da ke bin kadin kwakwalwar mataccen mutum kan nuna bakin tambari a cikin kokon kwarangwal din kai da fankon jijiya da ba ta alamun ci gaba ada aiki;jikinsu ba zai rayu ba, in har ba a tallafa musu ba.

Schiff na da tabbacin cewa hadakar na'urori da magunguna da tarairayar kwayoyin halitta, su za su sshare fagen samar da sabuwar managarciyar dabarar fahimta da magance matsalar, ta yadda za su haska duhun da ke tssakanin farkawa da rashion sanin inda kai yake. "Har yanzu ba mu kai nan ba," inji shi. Mafi yawan ayyukan da aka gudanar zuwa yaussun yin muni ne bame da kimar kwakwalwa na dimbin hotunan da aka dauka na majiyata, amma hakikanin abin na nuni d acewa, 'suna bukatar managarcciyar dabarar tarairaya wadda aikinta zai yi tasiri daga wwannan majiyaci zuwa wancan majiyaci. "Muna kokarin yin aikin ban mamaki a wasu nau'ukan bincikice lkadan da za su bijirro da abin da ke yiwuwa kan mutum guda ko biyu kafin a game kowa da aikin wannan sasssaukar dabara da za ta taimaka musu a yau," inji Schiff. Kwatsam sai ya samu tabbacin cewa zza a samu "sauyin al'ada". Laureys na ganin muna bukatar farawa da harshen da ake amfani da shi wajen kwatanta halin da wadannan majiyata ke ciki, yana son maye gurbin kalmar "langabu" da jijiyar "ta kasa katabus din farfadowa."

Duk da tababa da dimbin wahalhalun da aka yi fama da su wajen tarairayar irin wadannan dimbin rukunin mabambanta majiyata, da ke tattare da kalubalen fahimtar halin da suke ciki, tare da samun madaidaicin ttsarin gano lalurar da ke damunsu, ana ci gaba da bincike. Tuni an samu sakamako mai kyau, ala'amarin da ya bayar da dama ga majiyata kadan su bai wa likitocinsu labarin halin da suka kasance a ciki, ta yadda za a san ko suna bukatar maganin saukake zafin ciwo.

A shafin sadarwa na Skype, Owen ya yi murmushi, inda yake duba yiyuwar ko ya fada mini abin da yake shirin yi nan gaba. Abokiyar zaman Owen, Jessica grahn, wadda ita ma kwararriya ce a fannin nazarin cututtukan kwakwalwa, sai ta duaki juna biyu a farkon shekarar 2013. Shin me zai faru idan aka fara samun al'amun farfadowa a kwakwalwa?

Ya turo mini sakon i-mail da hoton bidiyon jarrirrin da ba a haifa ba, inda tsarin daukar hoto na fMRI ya yi daidaidai da kokon kansa, yadda yake juyawa, tare da juyin mahaifar Jessica. "Abokan aikina suna ta daukar hoton fMRI na cikin matata na wasu makonni, inda muka gano yadda za mu farkar dda kwakwalwar dan tayi," kamar yadda yake a rubutunsa. "Lamarin na da ban mamaki."

Scott Routley ya mutu a Satumbar 2013 iyalansa na tsaye a kansa

Kawar Adrian Owen Anne tana nan a dabaibayin kangabun jiki

Adrian Owen da matarsa Jessica Grahn sun haifi jaririnsu Jackson ranar 9 ga Oktobar 2013.

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