Me zan yi don tsira da rai lokacin aukuwar masifa?

Da karfe bakwai na yamma ranar 27 ga watan Satumbar 1994 Jirgin ruwan MS Estonia ya tashi daga Tallin dauke da mutum 989, inda ya ratsa ta Tekun Baltic. Amma bai kai inda ya nufa ba. Sa'a shida da tafiyarsa sai guguwa ta kayar da shi har kofarsa ta karye, tana budewa kuma ruwa ya shiga. Cikin sa'a guda jirgin ya nutse, tare da fasinja 852 da ma'aikatansa.

Al'amarin na nuni da cewa mutane da dama ne suka nutse saboda ba su yi wani katabus don tserar da kansu ba. "Mutane da dama sun kasa yin kyakkyawan tunani saboda tsoro, kamar yadda yake kunshe a rahoton hatsarin.

Me ke faruwa? Mutum daya da ya san amsa, shi ne John Leach, mai bayar da horon soja da ya kubuta, kuma ya yi nazarin halayyar mutane a lokacin ceton gaggawa a Jami'ar Portsmouth.

Ya yi nazarin wadanda suka tsira da dumbin wadanda suka jikkata a annoba iri daban-daban da suka auku a fadin duniya tsawon shekaru (kuma ya taba samun kansa a daya daga cikinsu, wato gobarar da ta auku a tashar King's Cross ranar 18 ga watan Nuwambar 1987 inda ta halaka mutum 31).

Ya gano cewa a masifun da ke barazana ga rayuwa, kimanin kashi 75 cikin 100 na mutane rudewa suke yi, ta yadda ba za su iya yin kyakkyawan tunanin hanyar tsira ba. Kwakwalensu kan toshe. Kashi 15 cikin 100 ne akalla ke samun nutsuwa da hangen mafitar da za ta kubutar da su. (sauran kashi 10 cikin 100 na cikin hadari; suna ta nuku-nuku har damar samun tsirarsu ta gushe).

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Image caption Turakun jirgin ruwan MS Estonia da ya nutse, inda mutane fiye da 800 suka mutu a shekarar 1994

Sai mu bijiro da tambaya a kan me ya sa mutane da dama suka mutu, duk da ba haka suka so ba, a lokacin da suke iya kubutar da kansu? Me ya sa mutane da dama suka kasa katabus ko suka kasa sauya taku a irin wannan yanayi da ke faruwa?

A mafi yawan lokutan aukuwar masifu, a cewarsa, ba ka bukatar wata kwarewa don fid da kanka. Abin da kawai kake bukata shi ne me ya dace ka yi. "Matsayina na bayar da horon tsira da rai a lokacin yaki shi ne in nusar da mutane dabarun kubuta. Matsayina na manazarcin dabi'un dan'adam da tunanin kwakwalwa shi ne in koya wa mutane hanyar tsirar da rayuwa.

Kofar tsira

Ba kasafai muke sanin hakikanin abin da mutane ke yi a lokacin neman agajin gaggawa ba. Injiniyoyin da suka tsara dabarun kubuta sun kiyasta cewa mutane za su yi ƙuru ne nan take, da zarar an ankarar da su, ganin hayaki ko jin gini na girgiza ko jin jirgin ruwansu a wani yanayi.

Duk da haka akwai dumbin masifun da suka auku a shekarun baya-bayan nan, kuma babban kalubalen shi ne kawar da su nan da nan. Ranar 22 ga watan Agustan 1985, mutum 55 sun mutu a hatsarin jirgin saman boeing 737 a titin sauka da tashi na filin jirgin saman Manchester da ke Burtaniya, lokacin da jirgin ya tashi zuwa Corfu, sai ya samu matsala a injinsa lokacin da yake dagawa.

Sashen gwamnati da ke bincike kan musababbin hatsarin jirgin sama ya ruwaito cewa: "Ta yiwu muhimmin al'amari game da hatsarin shi ne jirgin bai tashi ba, sai da gobara ta ruru, don haka ya haifar da asarar rai 55. Muhimmiyar tambaya ita ce me ya sa fasinjojin ba su sauka daga jirgin cikin hanzari ba?"

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Image caption Dabi'ar fasinja a mummunar gobarar filin jirgin saman Manchester a shekarar 1980 ta rikita kwararru

Maimaikon turmutsutsun idan-ba-ka-yi-ba-wani-waje don kubuta, mutane kan ki yin katabus a lokacin da suka shiga wani mummunan hatsari.

Daga cikin irin wadannan rashin katabus din a wannan zamanin shi ne harin da jiragen sama suka kai wa tagwayen bene a birnin New York ranar 9/11. Za ka yi tunanin cewa wadanda suka tsira daga harin farko za su bi hanya mafi kusa don ficewa cikin sauri. Mafi yawa dai akasin haka suka yi; sun takure. Wadanda kuwa suka samu fitowa sun jira kamar tsawon minti shida kafin su bi matakalar bene mafi kusa.

Wasu kuwa sun takure har sa'a guda, kamar yadda wani bincike da Cibiyar Managartan tsare-tsare da Fasahar Kere-kere (NIST) ta gudanar ya nuna.

Saboda rashin shirya wa abin da ya auku, ko dai sun ci gaba da abin da suke yi ko kuma sun takure don ganin abin da zai faru, suna jira wasu su fara motsawa.

Wani nazarin kuwa ya gano cewa rabin wadanda suka tsira sun dan dakata kafin su fice, sun yi ta kiran waya, suna daure kaya a cikin akwakun teburinsu, sun rika kulle ofishinsu, suna ta shiga bandaki, sun yi ta karasa sakonnin i-mail da kashe kwamfutarsu, da sauya takalma. Wata mata da ta saba hawa keke zuwa wajen aikinta sai da ta sauya tufafi irin na motsa jiki kafin ta tafi.

Hanyar tsira

Bayani kan irin wadannan dabi'u na rashin yin katabus da toshewar basira ko ci gaba da tunkarar musifar shi ne kasa sauya salo a lokacin da wani yanayi ya auku kwatsam . Tsira na nufi yunkuri don kai wa gaci; kana jin yunwa, sai ka nemi abinci; kana cikin kadaici, sai ka nemi aboki.

Ko da yaushe, haka lamarin yake kai tsaye (mun san inda za a samu abinci ko aboki). Sai dai a sabon yanayi da ba a saba gani ba, musamman na dugunzuma cikin tashin hankali kamar nutsewar jirgin ruwa ko gobarar jirgin sama, tsara dabarar tsira na da wahala - ta ina ake fita? Ya za a kai gare ta, duka akwai bukatar sanin abin yi.

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Image caption Wani iftila'in gobara kenan da wuta ke ci ganga-ganga

"A yanayi irin na matsin lamba, lokuta da dama al'amura na faruwa cikin sauri ta yadda tunkararsu ke da wahala," a cewar Leach. Halin da aka shiga ya fi karfin tunanin mafitarmu. Jerome Chertkoff, masanin dabi'ar tantance tunanin kwakwalwa da ke Jami'ar India cewa ya yi: "samun kai a wani halin rayuwa na hatsari na kara hargitsa tunani, kuma hargitsewar kan sanya mutane su iyakance matakan da za su dauka.

Abin na da muni yayin da aka kasa haƙƙaƙe matakin da ya dace a dauka ba, tun da ba za ka dauki mafita da ke da tabbacin tsira ba."

Wannan na nuni da dalilin da ya sanya a lokacin rudani mutane ke kasa yin abin da idan ana zaune lafiya-lafiya zai zo musu cikin sauƙi. Don haka mafita kawai kamar yadda kwararru ke ganin za a kauce wa gurgun tunani, sai a shirya wa aukuwa iftila'i.

"Kwatanta ƙoƙarin fitar da kanka daga wani hatsari, ba tare da yin tunani mai tsawo ba," a cewar Chertkof. Wannan na nufin adana bayanai kan tsira daga gobara idan ka shiga silima (wassafa cewa kana cikin irin wannan yanayi), riƙa karanta dabarun kubuta da aka manna a ƙofa, lokacin da ake cikin otal, ko da yaushe saurari dabarun tsira na jirgin sama gwargwadon yawan hawanka jirgin sama.

"Kowane lokaci na shiga jirgin ruwa abin da nake yi da farko shi ne sanin tashar jirgin cetona, saboda daga nan idan akwai matsala sai na dauki mataki, ba sai na fara tunani kan haka ba.," a cewar Leach.

Ko da yaushe, wadanda suka kubuta daga wani iftila'i, sun tsira ne ba wai saboda dabararsu ta fi ta kowa ba, ko sun fi gwarzanta ba, amma saboda sun yi da shirin kar-ta-kwana.

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Image caption Duba mafitarka kafin komai ya auku don ba ka iya tunawa a lokacin rudanin aukuwar masifa

Ina kuma batun mu'amalarmu da sauran mutane? Duk yadda ka kai ga shiri, wani bangare na yanayin ceton gaggawa a ko da yaushe sai lamari ya kwace mana: yaya wadanda ke kusa da mu suke yi. A nan, ma fahimtar kimiyya ta sha bamban da basirar mutane ko kuma abin da mai yiwuwa muka karanta a kafofin yada labarai.

Masu sharhi kan bijiro da shirmen cincirindon mutane a lokacin masifa - ko turmutsutsun mahajjata (masu ziyara), yamutsin cincirindon ƙwallon kafa ko neman tsira daga gobarar gidan rawa (night club).

Haƙiƙanin gaskiya wadannan al'amuran ba su cika faruwa ba. Bincike ya nuna cewa a mafi yawan lokuta, gungun mutane sukan taimaki junansu, maimakon su kawo cikas. "a lokacin agajin gaugawa, abin da aka saba shi ne hadin kai," a cewar Chris Cocking, wanda ya yi nazarin dabi'un mutane a yanayin cincirindo a Jami'ar Brighton. "dabi'ar son kai ba a cika samu ba, kuma gungun mutane na kawar da ita don ka da ta yadu."

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Image caption Paul Dadge na taimaka wa wani fasinja da ya samu rauni a hadarin bom din London a shekarar 2005 - daya daga hotunan harin)

Yi nazarin harin ƙunar-baƙin-waken da aka kai London ranar 7 ga watan Yulin 2005, inda mutum 52 suka mutu, wasu 700 suka samu raunuka.

Tsawon daruruwan sa'a fasinjoji sun maƙale cikin turnuƙewar hayaki a hanyar ƙarƙashin ƙasa cike da rashin tabbacin samun ceto, a'a, ba ma wannan ba. Ta yiwu a sake kawo hari na biyu.

Cikin wannan rudanin, mafi yawan mutane suka hadu wajen taimako, kamar yadda aka jiwo a tattaunawar da aka yi da wadanda suka tsira tare da Cocking da John Drury na Jami'ar Sussux da Steve Reicher na Jami'ar St. Andrews. Masanan dabi'ar kwakwalwar sun yi wa abin lakabi da 'dauriyar hadin gwiwa' wajen taimakon juna da hadin kai sa'ad da ake tunkarar wata masifa.

Karfin hadin gwiwa

Drury da Cocking da Reicher sun tattara dumbin misalai kan dauriyar hadin gwiwa. A shekarar 2008, sun tattauna da wadanda suka tsira a hadurra 11 cikin shekara 40 a baya, har da hatsarin filin kwallon Ghana, inda mutum 126 suka mutu lokacin da suke kokarin kubuta ta kofar fita da aka garkame, da kuma na jirgin ruwan da ya nutse 'Oceanos na Afirka ta Kudu a shekarar 1991 (fasinjoji 500 da suka tsira daga fitattun hadura).

Kowanne gungun mutane ya sadaukar da kansa fiye da son kan daidaikunsu. Cocking na ganin cewa mutane na kokarin hada kai a mawuyacin hali da kara samun mafita daga halaka ga kowa.

"Kadaicewa, ba ita ce ba, abu mafi a'ala shi ne mutum ya tafi da mutane a kungiyance. A yanayin da kowa ya kadaice. Al'amarin kubutar da kai na raguwa.

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Image caption A lokacin da ake fuskantar wani iftila'i, mutane sun fi kasancewa masu taimakon juna fiye da son kansu.

Har yanzu lokacin neman taimakon gaggawa zai iya kashe karsashin hadin gwiwa. Muhimmin misali shi ne yadda mutane ke yin abubuwa daban-daban lokacin da suke cikin hatsari, idan aka yi la'akari da labarin jirgin British-Irish Atlantic Odyssey wanda a watan Janairun 2012 ya yi yunkurin tsallaka teku daga gabas zuwa yamma don kafa tarihi cikin kwana 30.

Bayan kwana 28 sai igiyar ruwa ta kada kuma ta kifar da jirgin a lokacin da ya ci mil 500 (kilomita 800) daga tashinsa daga Barbados. A cewar Mark Beaumount, wani mai yawon duniya da yada labarai da ya kasance daya daga cikin matukan jirgin, sun kusa nutsewa, ba don mafi yawansu sun yi ninkaya cikin ruwa inda suka jirkito da turakun jirgin.

ambayar kanka tambaya mai sauki," inji Leach. "Idan wani abu ya faru, mene ya kamata in yi? Da zarar ka samu amsa cewa, komai zai zauna a mazauninsa. Lamarin na da sauki.