Me ya sa Dubai da ke hamada take siyo yashi daga waje?

Hakkin mallakar hoto iStock

Bunƙasar ayyukan gine-gine a duniya ta sa hatta ƙasashen da ke kewaye da hamada na buƙatar sayo yashi daga wasu wurare domin raya kansu, to amma me ya sa ba sa amfani da nasu ɗimbin arzikin yashin?

Renuka Rayasam ta yi mana bincike

Yashi abu ne da muka rena saboda muna ganinsa kusan a ko'ina kama daga hamada zuwa filayen wasannin yara. Amfanin wannan arziki na kasa a yau ya kai har an samu masu satarshi.

Abin mamaki wai ana fada a kan yashi.

Masanin kimiyya Pascal Peduzzi ya yi mamaki a lokacin tattaunawar da ya yi shekaru shida da suka wuce, da mazauna wani kauye da ake su (kamun kifi),a lokacin da yake bincike kan sanadin zaizayar kasa a kauyen mai suna Negril, da ke Jamaica.

Duk da irin kayan aikin bincike na zamani da yake da su masanin ya kasa gano dalilin da ke haddasa zaizayar kasa a wannan kauye da ke yankin gabar yammacin tekun kasar.

Mazauna kauyen sun bayyanamasa yadda 'yan bindiga suke zuwa dauke da makamai suna dibar yashi da buhuna cikin dare, suna kaiwa su sayarwa kamfanonin da ke ayyukan gine-gine a bakin teku.

Peduzzi, wanda darekta ne na kimiyya a shirin kula da muhalli na majalisar dinkin duniya, ya ce, ya yi mamaki yadda za a ce mutane suna fada saboda yashi.

Ya ce, ''Na yi shekara 20 ina aiki a bangaren muhalli, amma na yi mamaki a ce ana fada a kan yashi.''

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty
Image caption Ɗan sanda na gadin wani wuri da ake ɗibar yashi a Bogota, Colombia

A yau yashi wanda ake aikin gine-gine da shi tun zamanin da, ana kuma sarrafa shi wajen yin fenti da siminti da sauran abubuwa masu yawa ko ma a ce komai, daga rariyar tace ruwa a tafkin wanka na zamani (swimming pool), da rijiyar hako albarkatun man fetur da gilashin wayar salula da burushin wanke hakora da sauran abubuwa.

Bunkasar ayyukan gine-gine a duniya da kuma zuwan sabuwar fasahar aikin hako mai da iskar gas a Amurka, sun sa bukatar yashi ta yi tashin gwauron zabi.

Hukumar kula da harkokin da suka shafi kasa da duatsu ta Amurka ta ce, a 2014 an debi tan 196 na yashi da duwatsun gini a fadin duniya. Peduzzi ya ce in bayan ruwa yashi shi ne abin da aka fi amfani da shi daga albarkatun kasa.

Kasuwar yashi da duwatsun gini gaba daya ta kai ta dala biliyan takwas da miliyan 300 a Amurka a shekarar da ta wuce, kuma a Biritaniya ta kai ta dala biliyan biyu da miliyan 500 a shekarar 2013.

Wani kiyasi na watan Disamba na shekara ta 2014 na Freedom Group, ya nuna cewa bukatar yashi a duniya za ta karu da kashi biyar da rabi cikin dari a shekara har zuwa shekara ta 2018.

Bukatar yashi ta bambanta a duniya daga wuri zuwa wuri

Yawan yashin da China ta yi amfani da shi a shekara hudu da ta wuce ya fi wanda Amurka ta yi amfani da shi a karnin (shekara dari) da ya wuce.

Bunkasar ayyukan gine-gine a China da Indiya ta jawo karin bukatar yashi a kasuwa. Daga cikin kashi dari na sayen yashi daga waje da kasashe ke yi, China ce ke da kashi biyar kamar yadda binciken majalisar dinkin duniya ya nuna.

A yanzu har ya kai China tana zuba tarin kasa da yashi a teku domin ta kirkiri sabbin tsibirai domin ta kara tabbatar da ikonta a tekun kudancin China (south China Sea).

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty
Image caption Bunkasar ayyukan gine-gine na China ta jawo karuwar bukatar yashi

Hatta Hadaddiyar daular Larabawa ta sayi yashi da duwatsu da suka kai na dala miliyan 456 a shekara ta 2014, kamar yadda majalisar dinkin duniya ta bayyana.

Duk da kasancewar hadaddiyar daular Larabawa a tsakiyar hamada an gina ta ne da yashin da aka shigo da shi daga wasu kasashe, saboda yashin hamada ba zai yi gini ba saboda yana da laushi da yawa.

A Biritaniya kuwa a yanzu bukatar yashi ta ragu saboda raguwar ayyukan gine-gine kuma ana kara karfafa bukatar a rika sake sarrafa kasar gine-ginen da aka rushe.

Hukumomin Birtaniya sun nuna cewa bukatar yashi da duwatsu da tsakuwa da ake gini da su ta yi kasa da kashi 25 cikin dari idan aka kwatanta da yadda take a 2007.

Yayin da bukatar yashi da ake amfani da shi a kamfanoni ta bunkasa tattalin arzikin Amurka, bukatar ta kuma kasanace kamar yadda farashin mai yake a duniya.

Daga 2011 zuwa 2014 bukatar yashi ta ninka fiye da sau biyu daga tan miliyan 24 zuwa tan miliyan 59, amma kuma sai bukatar ta ragu zuwa tan miliyan 50, a shekarar da ta wuce.

Duk da faduwar farashin mai bukatar yashi na karuwa, saboda karin yashin da ake bukata wajen aikin hakar mai, kamar yadda Marc Bianchi, manajan darekta a kamfanin Cowen and Company ya ce.

Yadda aka samu ci gaban fasahar hako mai ta amfani da yashi, yawan yashin da ake amfani da shi ya ninka, daga tan dubu biyu a rijiya a watannin shida na 2013 zuwa tan 4,400 a karshen watannin 2015.

Abu ne da ke bukatar kudi da kuduri sosai a sayi wurin dibar yashi ko wani wurin dibar yashi na cikin teku. Kasashe da yawa suna sanya ido a kan dibar yashi a yankunansu, inda suke ba da lasisi kadan na dibar yashi domin gudun dibar yashin da yawa wanda hakan zai iya haddasa musu matsalar zaizayar kasa ko ramuka.

Fasahar debowa da sarrafawa da kuma safarar yashi za ta iya zama da tsada sosai ga daidaikun 'yan kasuwa. Ko da zuba jari a kamfanonin da ke hada-hadar yashi abu ne da ke bukatar dogon Turanci, tun daga kananan kamfanoni zuwa manya, kamar kamfanin kasar Belgium Sibelco Group, wanda ya kai shekara 144 kuma yana aiki a kasashe 41..

Ga kuma kamfanin siminti na Jamus na Heidelberg wanda yake yin siminti ya sayar a kasashe 40, kuma yana da wuraren dibar yashi a kasashen duniya.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Alamy
Image caption Rerayin hamada ya yi laushi sosai saboda haka ba a gini da shi

Hada-hadar kamfanonin samar da yashi ta bunkasa domin a 'yan shekarun da suka gabata, irin wadannan kamfanoni hudu ne na Amurka suka shiga kasuwar shinko (hannun jari) ta New York.

Duk da rashin tabbas na farashin mai, kamfanin Silica na Amurka wanda tun 1900 yake, ana ganin ya shirya wa duk wata matsala da ta za ta iya tasowa daga faduwar farashin mai.

Fargaba game da dibar yashi

A karshe kuma akwai matsalar dokoki da kuma muhalli da ya kamata a yi tunani a kansu a fadin duniya. Gabar bakin teku na zaizayewar yawan mita 40 daga shekarar 1968 zuwa 2008, in ji Peduzzi.

A wasu wuraren na Amurka kamar South Carolina da California, zaizayar kasa a dalilin yawan dibar yashi da dumamar yanayi ta kai ta daruruwan mita. A wasu sassan duniya ma lamarin ya kai ga bacewar tsibirai gaba daya.

''Har yanzu muna da yashi da yawa,'' in ji Peduzzi. Amma ''saboda muna amfani da shi sosai, ya fara karanci. Sai dai hakan ba yana nufin za mu daina amfani da shi ba, sai dai mu yi taka tsantsan da yadda muke amfani da shi.''

Idan kana son karanta wannan a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan. Even desert city Dubai imports its sand. This is why