Ka san ma'anar tuta mai launin bakan gizo?

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Bayan harin kan mai-uwa-da-wabi da aka kai kan 'yan luwaɗi a Orlando, wata alama ta goyon baya ga waɗanda abin ya faru a kansu ta bayyana.

Kelly Grovier ya duba wannan alama ko tuta wadda wasu ke cewa an yago ta ne daga ruhin mutane.

Kwatsam, sai kawai aka ga wadannan tutoci kusan a ko'ina: an kafe su a farfadiyar benaye, wasu an makala su a jikin motoci, wasu a jikin riguna, ko'ina a fadin duniya da sunan nuna goyon baya ga mutanen da aka ganawa akuba a ranar Lahadi a matattarar sheke aya ta 'yan luwadi a Orlando da ke Florida a Amurka.

Yana da kyau mu duba asalin ita wannan tuta da a yanzu ta zama wata alama ta nuna hadin kai da goyon baya ga wadanda suka mutu a harin dan bindiga mafi muni a tarihin Amurka, tutar da ta sake motsowa bayan kusan shekara 40 da kirkirarta.

Kamar yadda mai kare hakki da goyon bayan 'yan luwadi dan Amurka Gilbert Baker, wanda ya kirkiro tutar a karshen shekarun 1970, ya bayyana, ya ce tunanin tsarin tutar ya zao masa ne a shekarar da Amurka ta yi bikin cikarta shekara dari biyu da samun mulkin kai.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty
Image caption Tutar ta bayyana a wasu ƙasashe a duniya domin nuna alhini ga waɗanda aka kashe a Orlando

A lokacin tana cikin farfadowa daga abubuwa biyu da suka dame ta; janyewa daga yakin Vietnam da kuma murabus din farko da wani shugabanta ya yi a tarihi bayan dambarwar da ake wa lakabi da almundahanar Watergate, a sa'ilin ne Amurkan ta yi kokarin samar da wata hanya ta nuna kishin kasa.

Babban muhimmin abin da ya jawo wannan hadin kai shi ne kakkafa tutar kasar a ko'ina a lokacin, tutar da ke nuna tsananin dambarwar siyasa da da ta zamantakewa da kasar ke fafutkar kokarin mantawa da su.

A kan wadannan abubuwa ne magajin garin San Francisco Harvey Milk, mutum da farko da ya fito fili ya bayyana cewa shi dan luwadi ne, wanda aka zaba a wani mukami a California, ya karfafa wa Baker guiwa domin ya kirkiro wata lama ta hadin kan 'yan luwadi- alamar da za ta nuna alfahari da kuma tabbatar da 'yanci a cikin al'umma.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AP
Image caption Tutar 'yan luwadi da madigo a lokacin wani gangami na Thessaloniki

Ganin yadda tutar kasar Amurka wadda a sigarta ta tabbatar da hadin kai da kishin kasa a tsakanin al'ummomin kasar, Baker ya yi tunanin samar da wata tuta mai sauki wadda ke dauke da layin launuka iri danban-daban da za su zama a wuri guda a matsayin alama ta hadin kai- wannan ne ya haifar da tutar mai launin bakan gizo, wadda tun daga wannan lokaci har zuwa yau ta zama wata lama ta hadin kan 'yan neman jinsi daya.

An rika kawo bayanai da tunani daban-daban na abin da Baker ya sa ya kirkirar tutar tasu. To amma a wata hira da aka yi da gidan adana kayan tarihi na Museum of Modern Art ya yi da shi a shekarar da ta wuce (2015), ya ce abin bai kai duk yadda mutane suke ta tunani ba, ''tuta ce wadda ba mutum ne ya kirkireta ba. Daga sama take.''

Wannan tuta tana kuma da alaka da tarihi, ko da yake kasancewar amfani da ita da ake yi tun farko a wasu al'amura ko gwagwarmaya da ta shafi al'ada da addini a fadin duniya, hakan bai hana Baker ya yi amfani da ita tsarin launinta ba.

A karni na 18 dan gwagwarmayar juyin juya hali Ba'amurken Ingila kuma marubucin fitaccen littafin siyasar nan Rights of Man, Thomas Paine, ya bayar da shawarar amfani da tutar mai launin bakan gizo a matsayin alamar gane jirgin ruwa na 'yan ba-ruwanmu a cikin teku.

Mabiya addinin Buddha a Sri Lanka suna amfani da tutar tun a karshen karni na 19 a matsayin wata alama ta hadin kan mabiya addininsu, kamar yadda Indiyawa suke amfani da ita a duk ranar 31 ga watan Janairu domin tunawa da ranar da jagoran addininsu Meher Baba ya mutu, sannan kuma tun 1961 gamayyar kungiyoyin masu kokarin tabbatar da zaman lafiya na duniya suke amfani da tutar.

PICTUE @A farkonta kirkirarta, tutar da Baker ya kirkiro ta kunshi launuka takwas ne- wato karin launuka biyu a kan wadda a yanzu duniya take amfani da ita a matsayin tutar masu mu'amulla ta jinsi daya wato LGBT. Kuma kowane launi yana da ma'anarsa.

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Image caption An yi gangamin nuna goyon baya ga 'yan luwaɗi da maɗigo a Los Angeles kwana ɗaya bayan harin Orlando

Launin ruwan hoda wanda ke saman tutar na nufin jinsi, sai ja wanda ke biye da shi wanda ke nufin rayuwa, sai ruwan goro mai ma'anar waraka, sai ruwan dorawa ko rawaya mai nufin hasken rana, sai kore da ke nufin duniya, sai gaurayen launin kore da shudi da ke nufin tsafi, sai launin shudi-shudi (indigo) mai ma'anar kwanciyar hankali da kuma launin algarushi a kasa wanda ke alamta ruhi.

Wannan tutar mai launuka takwas wadda aka fara bayyana ta a karon farko a dandalin majalisar dinkin duniya da ke San Francisco a watan Yuni na 1978, wasu 'yan sa kai ne guda 30 da suka wanke wasu kyallaye na cibiyar dabdalar 'yan luwadi, a wata na'urar wanki ta jama'a sannan aka goge su aka hada su aka dinke wuri daya.

Wannan shi ne nau'in tutar da Harvey Milk zai sani kafin 'yan watannin da aka kashe shi tare da Magajin garin San Francisco, George Moscone, inda wani abokin luwadin Milk ya bindige su a babban dakin taro na birnin a ranar 27 ga watan Nuwamba.

Bukatar tutar ta karu sosai bayan kisan 'yan luwadin biyu, domin a yi amfani da ita a jerin gwanon 'yan luwadi da bukukuwansu domin martaba masu kare 'yancin 'yan madigo da luwadi da masu mu'amulla irin tasu, wadanda ake kira LGBT a takaice.

An tilasta wa Baker ya rage yawan launin tutar, inda ya rage guda biyu da farko ya cire launin saman tutar na farko mai ruwan hoda saboda wahalar samunsa, sannan kuma ya cire mai launin gamayyar kore da shudi, shi kuma saboda idan an kafe tutar a tsaye sai ya kasance ba ta da kyau.

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Image caption An kashe mai rajin kare haƙkin 'yan luwaɗi da maɗigo Harvey Milk a ɗakin taro na birnin San Francisco a 1978

Tun bayan shekaru 38 da Baker ya kaddamar da wannan tuta a matsayin alamar hadin kan 'yan luwadi da madigo a duniya, amfani da tutar ke ci gaba da karuwa.

A ranar 12 ga watan Yuni masu maci suka yi ta daga tutar a wani babban gangami na farko na 'yan luwadi da aka yi a Ukraine. Tsakanin ranar 24 da 26 na watan na Yuni, za a daga tutar a karon farko a saman ginin majalisar dokokin Burtaniya domin bikin karshen makon alfaharin 'yan luwadi da madigo.

A shekarar 2015 Facebook ya bullo da alamar wannan tuta ta launin bakan gizo, bayan da kotun kolin Amurka ta amince da auren 'yan jinsi daya a fadin kasar.

To amma abin da ya biyo bayan hakan a Rasha da Gabas ta tsakiya, da kuma abubuwan da suka faru a Orlando, alama ce da ke nuna cewa wannan ba tuta ba ce kawai ta murna.

A ranar bikin shekara 20 da ya kirkiro tutar an ce Baker ya furta cewa, ''tutoci ana yago su ne daga ran mutane.''

Idan kana son karanta wannan a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan. The history of the rainbow flag