Kwaron da ya fi gudu a duniya

Hakkin mallakar hoto sophien kamoun

Wa kake gani zai yi nasara idan aka zuba tsere tsakanin kyankyaso da kuma hangara? Damisa (mai rodi-rodi) ita ce aka fi sani da cewa dabbar kasa da ta fi gudu a duniya, domin tana gudun da ya kai na kilomita 120 a sa'a daya. Wannan gudu nata na nuna cewa tana nasarar kama rabin yawan duk dabbobin da ta tasa gaba.

Nick Fleming ya yi mana karin nazari.

Wannan abin sha'awa ne ba shakka, to amma daman abu ne da ka riga ka sani, saboda damisa dabba ce da ake labarinta sosai in har za a ambaci dabbobin dawa.

Mai wasan barkwancin nan na Biritaniya Noel Fielding, ya taba korafi a wata waka cewa, an fi mayar da hankali kan manyan dabbobi, kuma maganar gudun damisa daya ne daga cikin misalan hakan.

Ba shakka Fielding, ba wata-wata zai amince da kudurin Thomas Merritt, wanda a shekarar 1999 ya dukufa domin gano kwaron da ya fi gudu a duniya.

Daga nan ne Merritt, wanda a lokacin yake jami'ar Florida a Gainesville, ya fara tattara bayanai a kan kwari, tare da tuntubar abokan aikinsa masana ilimin kwari.

Ya yanke shawarar cewa duk kwaron da zai sa a cikin jerin wanda za a fitar ya zama gwani, sai ya kasance an jarraba shi akalla sau biyar, kuma an taba wallafa sakamakon a wata mujallar kimiyya.

Sakamakon rashin cimma wadannan ka'idoji biyu ne aka fitar da wata tsutsa (apantesisi vitatta), wadda ke tafiyar kilomita biyar a cikin sa'a daya daga jerin wadanda za a zaba.

To amma akwai wasu kwarin guda uku cikin 'yan takarar, wadanda ake da bayanansu, wadanda kuma sun ma fi waccan tsutsa sauri.

Hakkin mallakar hoto AFP
Image caption Kyankyaso na shirin fafara gudu

A 1991 wasu masana kimiyya biyu a jami'ar California da ke Berkeley, sun yi amfani da wasu na'urori suka yi nazarin gudun kyankyasai guda uku.

Ko da yake kyankyaso ya kan tashi da fukafukinsa, to amma ba kasafai yake yin hakan ba, domin ya fi tafiya da sauri idan ya yi amfani da kafafunsa biyu na baya.

A nazarin da masu binciken suka yi, sun ga kyankyasan sun kai nisan mita daya da rabi ko kafa biyar a cikin dakika daya, wanda hakan ke nufin gudun kilomita biyar a cikin sa'a daya.

A shekarar 1996 kuma wasu masana kimiyya a kasar Netherlands (Holland), sun jarraba wasu nau'ukan buzuzu ko hangara guda biyu na kasar Australia (Cicindela eburneola, Cicindela hudsoni).

Dukkanin kwarin biyu suna da fukafuki, amma ba wanda za su iya tashi da shi ba ne, a madadin haka sai ya kasance suna iya gudu sosai.

Masu binciken sun auna gudunsu, inda suka ga na farko gudunsa ya kai na kilomita shida da digo takwas a sa'a daya, yayin da daya nau'in kuwa ya kai nisan kilomita tara a sa'a daya.

A kan hakan ne, suka zabi hangarar ta biyu (cicindela hudsoni) a matsayin kwaron da ya fi gudu a duniya, domin yana iya kai nisan mita biyu da rabi ko kafa takwas a cikin dakika daya.

Idan yana gudu sosai ba ya iya gani da kyau, saboda haka idan yana son ganin komai sai ya rage gudu.

Girma ma yana da tasiri:

Sai dai kuma idan ana maganar yawan sauri ko gudun ne daidai da girman jiki, to a nan sai dai a yi maganar nau'in hangarar ta farko (Cicindela eburneola), domin kwaron zai iya tafiyar awon lamba 171bl/s a cikin dakika daya.

Fiye da dan uwansa na biyu (cicindela hudsoni) wanda yake da gudun lamba 120bl/s a dakika daya, yayin da shi kuwa kyankyaso yake da lamba 50bl/s a dakika daya.

Mutum da sauran dabbobi wadanda suka yi fice wajen gudu, ba ma a maganarsu a wannan tsere.

Usain Bolt zakaran tseren duniya na nisan mita 100, za a iya cewa karshen gudunsa ya kasance kilomita 44.2 a sa'a daya, to amma idan aka auna da tsawonsa na mita 1.96 (kafa shida da inci biyar), gudunsa a dakika daya zai kasance ne lamba 6 bl/s.

Hatta ita kanta damisa ma a cikin dakika daya tana gudun da ya kai na lamba 16 bl/s ne.

Idan ana son samo ainahin dabbar da ta fi gudu a kan kasa a duniya, sai a fita daga rukunin manyan kwari.

A farkon shekara ta 2014 wani dan karamin kwaro (Paratarsotomus macropalpis) a kudancin California, an gano yana tafiyar mita 0.225 a cikin dakika daya, wato rabin mita a cikin sa'a daya kenan.

Za a ga kamar wannan ba wani sauri ba ne, amma idan aka yi la'akari da girman shi wannan dan mitsitsin kwaro mai tsawon 0.7mm, za a ga gudunsa yana da yawa matuka inda a dakika daya ya kai lamba 322bl/s.

Merritt ya yi la'akari da irin wadannan 'yan mitsi-mitsin kwari masu tsananin gudu, amma kuma a karshe ya ware su, saboda galibi ba a la'akari da girman jiki a sauran gasar tsere kamar ta motar da ta fi gudu.

Wani abu kuma shi ne 'yan mitsi-mitsin dabbobi ko halittu (kamar Paratarsotomus macropalpis) suna da wata dama wadda sauran manya ba su da ita.

Saboda rashin girman jikinsu, suna iya tsayawa ko su sauya hanya kuma su kara gudu cikin sauki da kuma hanzari sosai.

Idan kana son karanta wannan a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan The fastest insect in the world