An gano sirrin wani kabari na shekara 12,000

Hakkin mallakar hoto Hanan Isachar Alamy

Wani tsohon kabari da ya kai shekara 12,000 a Isra'ila ya bayyana sirrin yadda ake ɗaya daga cikin jana'iza ta ƙasaita da ɗawainiya a tarihin duniya.

Ga bayanin Melissa Hogenboom

Shekara 12,000 da suka wuce an yi wata gagarumar jana'iza ta kasaita ta wata mata mai muhimmin matsayi. Jama'ar da suka halarci jana'izar tata sun yi gagarumin biki inda suka cika kabarinta da abubuwa na ban mamaki. Kuma abin mamaki sai suka jejjefa ragowar abubuwan da suka ci a wurin a kabarin.

An gano wannan kabari ne a kogon Hilazon Tachtit a Isra'ila, inda aka taba gano wasu kasusuwa na da sauran wasu abubuwa na wasu gawarwakin mutanen da.

Tun daga lokacin da aka gano wannan kabari mai abubuwan ban mamaki,. Masu binciken kayan tarihi na karkashin kasa, suke ta tururuwa zuwa wurin.

A yanzu masu binciken sun fahimci ainahin irin abubuwan da aka yi a kabarin a lokacin jana'izar, inda aka wallafa bayanan nasu a mujullar Current Anthropology.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Naftali Hilger
Image caption Akwai wasu gawarwakin a cikin kogon

Mutanen da suka rayu a wurin 'yan kabilar Natufian ne, wadanda suka rayu a Levant daga shekara 15,000 zuwa 11,500 da suka wuce.

Sun rayu ne a tare kamar gungu-gungu, kamar yadda ake gari-gari a yanzu tun kafin zamanin a fara noma. Wannan abu ne da ba a saba gani ba a lokacin, domin mutanen lokacin suna yawon farauta ne daga wannan wuri zuwa wancan.

Su 'yan kabilar Natufiya suna daga cikin mutanen da a tarihi suka fara jana'iza ta binne gawarwaki. ''Wannan shi ne karon farko da jana'iza ta zama al'ada a wannan lokacin. Kila saboda muna ganin abubuwa daban-daban a cikin al'umma,'' in ji Leore Grosman ta jami'ar Hebrew ta Isra'ila, wadda take nazari a kan kabarin tun sama da shekara takwas.

Wannan dabdala da aka gani a kabarin na Hilazon Tachtit daya ce daga cikin jana'iza mai hidima da yawa da aka taba ganowa. Kuma tana daya daga cikin mafiya tsufa a tarihi.

An yi dabdala sosai a wurin. Kifaye da da bareyi da dila da macizai da zomaye na daga irin dabbobin da aka gano a cikin kabarin

Ga alama gasasshen kunkuru abu ne da suka fi so. An gano ragowar naman dabbobi iri daban-daban har sama da 80, wanda nauyinsu ya kai kilogram 20.

Ba shakka taron mutane ne suka yi dabdala a wurin, ko da yake abu ne mai wuya a iya sanin ko su nawa ne.

Grosman da abokiyar aikinta Natalie Munro ta jami'ar Connecticut a Amurka, suka ce jana'izar da liyafar da aka yi a lokacin an kasa su ne zuwa akalla kashi shida.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Leore Grosman
Image caption Alamar ƙasusuwa da wasu abubuwa a kabarin

Farko mutanen sun rarake kasan kogon ne domin su yi kabarin. Sai kuma suka zuba birbidin albarkatun ruwa a kabarin suka cika shi da wasu abubuwa na daban, wadanda suka hada da kahon namijin barewa da wata jar kasa kamar makuba da bayan kunkuru uku ko fiye da haka da kuma alli, sannan kuma suka zuba toka.

Sai a mataki na hudu ne mutanen suka saka gawar matar a kabarin, kuma kusan a zaune suka sata ciki. Sai kuma suka sa kafar gaba ta aladen daji da kuma karin bayan kunkuru wadanda aka sa a karkashin kanta da kugu.

Akwai abubuwa da dama na daban wadanda ba a gansu ba a wasu kaburburan na Natufiyan din, wadanda aka kawo aka sa a kusa da jikin gawar da kuma kan jikinta. Kayan sun hada da kokon jikin halittun ruwa da kuma wani bangare na fukafikin mikiya. Abin da ya fi daukar hankali kuma a cikin kabarin shi ne wata kafar mutum na daban da aita ma ke cikin tarkacen.

Mataki na biyar shi ne na dabdalar, inda mutane suka rika jefa ragowar abincin da suka ci a cikin kabarin kafin a rufe shi.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Leore Grosman
Image caption An ga tarin sassan jikin dabbobi iri daban-daban a kabarin

''Ba sa tsoron su jefa abin da muke kira shara a cikin kabarin,'' in ji Grosman. ''Abu ne dai kamar suna kokarin danne gawar da wannan sharar abinci.''

A mataki na shida kuma na karshe sai mutanen suka rufe kabarin da wani makeken falefalen dutse mai nauyin kusan kilogram 75. Wannan shi ne falefalen dutse mafi girma da aka taba ganowa a wannan yanki (natufia).

Bisa ga dukkan alama an dade ana shirya wa wannan taron jana'iza. Domin kila an dauki makonni kafin farauto da hada wadannan dabbobi.

Ba mu san dalilin da ya sa aka yi wa wannan mata irin wannan jana'iza ta musmman ba yayin da sauran kaburburan mutanen da suke kusa da ita ba a yi musu komai ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Natalie D. Munro
Image caption An binne matar da ƙoƙon bayan kunkuru guda uku

Wannan jana'iza tata ta musamman ta nuna cewa lalle mai wani matsayi ce a cikin al'ummarta in ji Grosman. Ta ce, ''kayayyakin da aka sanya a kus da ita sun nuna alama ta bokanci, saboda haka bayan da muka fito da duka wadannan abubuwa muna ganin koila bokanya ce.''

Gawarta ta nuna alamar cewa tana da wata nakasa da ta sa take dingishi.

Wannan taron jana'izar ya nuna cewa 'yan kabilar Natufia sun yi tsari na zamantakewa da mu'amulla da juna, domin 'yan taron mutane da ke yawan farauta da neman abinci ba za su iya shirya wannan gagarumar jana'iza ba, saboda a ko da yaushe suna yawo nan da can, wanda ba za su iya hada wannan taro ba.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Naftali Hilger

''Kasidar ta ba mu haske kan yadda al'ummar ta Natufia suka rika al'adunsu na jana'iza, wanda hakan ya ba mu haske a kan irin al'adar mutanen da aka binne a wurin, '' kamar yadda Lisa Maher ta jami'ar California a Berkeley ta rubuta a kan sabon binciken.

''Abin shi ne a yanzu ko za mu iya gano irin wannan al'ada a sauran jana'iza, a wasu wuraren, ko kuma da wata sigar.''

Al'ummomi na baya-bayan nan ga alama sun koyi al'adar kakanninsu na jinsin Natufia ne.''

Hakkin mallakar hoto Naftali Hilger
Image caption Masu binciken kayan tarihi na ƙarƙashin ƙasa na aiki a tsohon kabarin

Ba abu ne mai sauki ba a gano tsarin al'adar yadda jana'izar Hilazon Tachtit ta ke ba.

Idan kana son karanta wannan a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan. Secrets of the world's oldest funeral feast