Ka san rami mafi zurfi da mutum ya haƙa da hannu?

Hakkin mallakar hoto David Brossard Flickr CC by SA

Wasu mutanen suna son sanin yadda har mutum ya iya yin rami mai zurfi sosai a cikin ƙasa, wanda a kan haka ne muka duƙufa domin gano irin ƙoƙarin da bil adama ya yi na kaiwa ƙarshen ƙasa.

Ga binciken David Robson.

A duk lokacin da muke duba irin gagarumin cigaban da mutum ya yi a fannin gine-gine, muna kallon sama ne. Ka duba dalar Masar da Cocin St Peters Basilica ta fadar Paparoma ko kuma Taj Mahal da ke Indiya: dukkaninsu manyan gine-gine ne masu tsawon gaske.

To amma abin da ba a sani ba sosai shi ne gagarumin kokarin da aka yi na kaiwa ga karshen karkashin kasa. A binciken da muka yi kan wannan yunkuri, mun bayyana irin nasarorin da aka yi.

Daga irin tambayoyin da mutane suka yi game da wannan cigaba, wani yana son sanin yadda dan adam ya iya gina ramin karkashin kasa na tsawon daruruwan mita. A kan haka ne muka sake bincikawa domin kara duba wannan kokari.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Science Photo Library
Image caption Tsakiyar ƙasa

Idan ana maganar kyawu da kwarewa ta aikin gini ne, dole a yi maganar birnin Derinkuyu na zamanin da, wanda aka gina a karkashin kasa da hannu.

Birnin wanda ya kai mita 60 ko kafa 196 a karkashin kasa a yankin Cappadocia da ke Turkiyya yana da mutane 20,000, dake da gidajensu da makarantu da sauran wurare na harkokinsu na rayuwa da ibada. Birnin na da matakai biyar, inda cocin garin ke can mataki na karshen ramin.

Yankin na Cappadocia yana karkashin wani yanki ne mai duwatsu marassa karfi sosai, kuma ana ganin mazauna birnin kila sun fara haka ramin ne tun shekara 700 kafin bayyanar annabi Isa.

A tarihi mutane sun yi ramuka masu zurfi a karkashin kasa, amma kuma da 'yan abubuwa na fasaha irin tasu, wadda za a iya cewa kusan da hannu suka yi.

Leburori 50,000 a yankin Kimberly da ke Afrika ta Kudu, sun tona tan miliyan 22 na kasa a aikin da suka fara na tonon dutsen daimon tun a farkon shekarun 1870 har zuwa 1914, inda a karshe suka kai zurfin sama da mita 240 ko kafa 790, kafin a daina aikin.

Ramin wanda ake kira ''Big Hole'' a yanzu ana ganin shi ne mafi girma da aka gina da hannu, ko da yake babu cikakkun bayanai, wanda kuma zai iya kasancewa akwai wasu ramukan da aka gina na hannu wadanda sun fi shi.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Nevit DilmenWikipediaCC BYSA 3.0
Image caption Birnin Derinkuyu na ƙarƙashin ƙasa mai mutane 20,000 a zamanin da

Rijiyar Woodingdean Well da ke kusa da Brighton a Burtaniya, ita ce rijiya mafi zurfi da dan adam ya gina a doron kasa. Rijiyar wadda ta kai zurfin mita 390 ko kafa 1,285 ta kai tsawon ginin Empire State Building me hawa 102 wanda yake birnin, New York a Amurka, amma kuma duk da haka fadin bakinta da kadan ya wuce mita daya.

An rika aikin gina rijiyar ba dare ba rana, inda ake amfani da kyandir idan dare ya yi, kuma masu hakar rijiyar suna turo kasar da suke hakowa waje ta wani winci, sannan kuma a tura musu tubalin da suke daure ramin.

A yau fasaha ta ba mu damar gina ramukan da ke da zurfi sosai ta hanyoyi da kaya iri daban-daban. Ta hanyar amfani da nakiya da sauran na'urori, a kasar Afrika ta Kudu aka gina ramin hakar ma'adanai na Tautona da Mponeng, inda aka fasa dutse har nisan kilomita hudu.

Na'urar hawa bene ta kan dauki sa'a daya kafin ta kai karshen wannan rami, wanda zafin cikinsa ya kai 59 a ma'aunin selshiyas (59C), abin da ke nufin sai an sa katafariyar na'urar sanyaya wuri a cikin kafin mutane su iya aiki a ciki.

Hakkin mallakar hoto Getty
Image caption Mahaƙar ma'adanai ta Boulby da ke Burtaniya

Watakila tsananin zafi da rashin iskar da ke wadannan ramuka masu zurfi, na hakar ma'adanai, za su iya sa mu fahimci yadda rayuwar wasu halittu da ba a doron kasa suke ba, tun da yanayin muhallin daya ne da na sauran duniyoyi.

Haka kuma ta irin wadannan ramuka na hakar ma'adanai masu bincike za su iya gano abubuwan nan masu daure kai, wadanda masana kimiyya suke ganin sune suka yi duniya.

Yadda aka samu ci gaban fasaha a yanzu mutanen da ke kokarin kutsawa cikin karkashin kasa na cigaba da raguwa, tun da yanzu da na'urori ake aiki. Sai dai fa wannan ba zai hana wasu mutanen tona karkashin kasar ba.

Al'adar mutum ce neman sanin kwakwaf kan komai a duniyar nan, kama daga tsauni mafi tsawo zuwa karshen ramin da ya fi kowane rami zurfi.

Idan kana son karanta wannan a harshen Ingilishi latsa nan. The deepest holes dug by hand