The death toll from the ongoing cold snap in Central and Eastern Europe has risen to more than 100. In some countries the army has been called out to help people trapped by heavy snowfall and authorities have set up temporary shelters for the homeless.
Most of the deaths have occurred in Poland and Ukraine, where 65 mainly homeless people have died from exposure over the last week as temperatures have fallen to -30C.
In many Ukrainian cities the authorities have erected heated tents with hot tea and food.
Outdoor coal braziers have been placed beside bus stops in Polish cities and the police are urging the public to report sightings of people sleeping rough in train stations or allotments so they can be offered beds in shelters.
The extremely cold weather is forecast to continue for the next week. Rising demand for gas has led Ukraine to increase its imports from Russia, and Poland to introduce rationing to some industrial plants, due to fears that stocks will run out.
exposure: tanpa perlindungan
coal braziers: tungku batu bara
are urging: mendorong, menyerukan
sleeping rough: tidur di tempat terbuka
rising demand: kenaikan permintaan