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2 September 2014 Last updated at 09:22 ET

Is the UK unusually fond of lamb and potatoes?

Rack of lamb

The US ambassador to the UK says he is fed up of being served lamb and potatoes. Does this imply the British have an exceptional taste for the dish, asks Mario Cacciottolo.

If you're playing host to Matthew Barzun, Washington's man in London, don't cook him lamb and potatoes. He claims to have been served the meal 180 times since his arrival to British shores last autumn and he's had quite enough now, thank you very much.

"There are limits and I have reached them," he told Tatler magazine.

The implication is that Britons have an exceptional taste for the dish.

In fact, on the international scale, the UK's annual per capita lamb consumption of 4.7kg is decidedly mid-table at best, according to Eblex, the UK's organisation for lamb (its figures also include a small helping of goat meat). That's well behind Greece's 12.8kg and the biggest consumer of them all - Mongolia, with 45.1kg.

But it's way ahead of the US, which consumes a mere 0.4kg per capita each year of lamb. Writing in the Times, Philip Delves Broughton points out that almost half of Americans have never even tried it.

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Lamb recipes you'll always be happy to eat

Lamb dhansak

There are many more at BBC Food

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It's not so much that Britons eat a lot of lamb and potatoes. It's that the meal has long been regarded as a sumptuous feast.

The Cheltenham Chronicle in August 1919 carried a report of how a woman appearing before magistrates - for reasons not disclosed - gave her husband regular helpings of "roast lamb peas and potatoes" as proof of how well she had treated him. He, by her account, was unappreciative of her efforts, which the magistrates referred to as luxurious.

Chocolates Now that would be really spoiling the ambassador

As far back as 1896, the Lichfield Mercury was encouraging cooks with recipes that involved covering lamb and various vegetables with "a good many new potatoes - as many as required" with which to layer on top of the stew.

Perhaps this should have been explained to Barzun. He's been getting served what the Brits think is a fine dish, one designed to impress such an illustrious visitor, unaware that they've actually been making him sick of the sight of it.

MasterChef presenter Gregg Wallace would happily swap places with the ambassador.

"Lamb is often used in North African dishes but I prefer the traditional method," he says. "It's a fatty meat, so I can understand why some people don't like it, but for me that's what makes it so delicious. I'd have it as my last meal."

Still, things could be worse for Barzun. He must hope his diplomatic skills are never needed in Ulan Bator.

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Does limiting the power of appliances save energy?

Woman and hairdryer

The European Commission has banned the sale of powerful vacuum cleaners. Now it might do the same for other domestic appliances, but would this actually cut energy consumption?

It started with vacuum cleaners. Then there were howls of outrage when it emerged the European Commission has set up a working group to look at whether other common household appliances - kettles, toasters, bread makers and hairdryers among them - should also be regulated.

The working group is at an early stage and may rule out many of the products. But is the premise correct - does the power of an appliance determine energy consumption? Or by halving the wattage do you simply mean that someone uses it for twice as long?

Take hairdryers. You could use a 1,000-watt hairdryer for a minute or a 500-watt one for two minutes and it would in theory use the same energy. But, says Henry Lau, outreach officer at the Institute of Physics, it's not that simple. You have to look at how efficient hairdryers actually are. "Part of the power is being used to power a heating element, you'll get some energy wasted heating other parts of the hairdryer, not just the air." Design matters - is it better to have faster-blown air, or hotter air?

The answer

  • No clear relationship between motor size and overall energy consumption
  • More efficient engines and better product design can be more important than power
  • Many products, such as hairdryers, use far more energy than is needed to do the job

For vacuum cleaners, better nozzle and filter design means that you can suck up more dust without increasing the power of the motor, says Chrissy McManus, technical manager at the Association of Manufacturers of Domestic Appliances. Which? Magazine has made the same point, while noting many of its Best Buys have engine sizes that exceed the new limit of 1,600 watts.

There's no simple relationship between motor power and energy use, says Prof Will Stewart, fellow at the Institute of Engineering and Technology. And a big motor used at low power will use about the same energy as a smaller engine doing the same job. But the EU is right to expect better efficiency. He estimates it should take about 2,000 watts of power applied for less than a minute to dry wet hair. Yet most hairdryers take far longer with similar or more powerful motors. The hope must be that manufacturers will do more with less power. But he wonders if regulation is necessary. "The hairdryer is a very small potato in terms of energy use."

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Go Figure: The week in numbers

Look back at the week in numbers with our Go Figure images, which are posted daily on social media.

Macau graphic

Tuesday: Protests point to Macau awakening

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Kate Bush graphic

Wednesday: Kate Bush comeback greeted with huge cheers

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Venice padlock graphic

Thursday: Italy: Campaign to reduce 'love locks' on Venice bridges

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Iceland earthquake graphic

Friday: Iceland lowers alert for erupting volcano

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Find #BBCGoFigure on Twitter and on Facebook

The Victorian pig singing competition

Illustration of a man carrying a pig

Cheer/groan (delete according to mindset): The X Factor is back. Author Jeremy Clay tells the story of the show's Victorian forebear, where the hopefuls had to sing while carrying a pig.

There was no sobbing. None of the hopefuls told a weepy backstory. Not a single one boohoo-ed about the journey they'd been on since the contest began.

At the Victorian version of the X Factor, the talent show format was stripped right back to its bare bones. Just six contestants and a stage, each and every man singing his heart out to impress the judges. While carrying a pig.

This singular scene played out in London in 1896, the harebrained brainwave of an auctioneer called CF Rowley. He wanted to drum up a bumper crowd for his sales. Putting on a bit of a show to jolly things along seemed a perfectly sensible way of going about it, even if the requirement to hold a hog didn't.

Victorian Strangeness

"A Monkey's Diversion", Illustrated Police News

A series of bizarre episodes culled from 19th Century newspapers by Jeremy Clay.

Still, it seemed to do the job. Up to 1,500 people crammed into the marquee in Willesden Green, and they weren't just there for the hammy performances. There was also a wheelbarrow race, a hot tea-drinking showdown and some non-specific whatnottery involving a chap dressed in a donkey's skin that the press alluded to but never got round to properly explaining.

But if his sale was punctuated by outbursts of buffoonery, Mr Rowley was no fool. The auction lots included pianos. What better way to show off the value of the instruments than to hear them in action?

And just as much then as now, people loved a sing-off - choir competitions and contests for comic or sentimental songs. When human vocal cords weren't being put to the test, skylarks, canaries and other birds were matched up in a battle of the tweets. In the Derbyshire village of New Tupton, a clash became so heated the owners of rival birds came to blows over the relative merits of their pets, with one hitting the other over the head with a bottle of stout. "Fortunately he was wearing a hat," noted the Derbyshire Times.

Back in Willesden, several nights of Rowley's sales had caught the zealous eye of the authorities. That gas-lit canvas tent with only one exit was a death trap, and he didn't have a licence. Soon he was hauled up before the bench, where he was convicted of keeping a disorderly house. And that, when it came to pig-toting song contests, was that.

The prize, by the way, had been the pig itself. Who won it? The newspapers didn't think it was worth mentioning. There'll be plenty of people who'd wish the same was true of the X Factor.

Illustrated Police News image provided by the British Library Board.

Discover more about what life was like in Victorian times and 10 truly bizarre Victorian deaths

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Weekendish: The best of the week's reads

Cartoon Nemo with dad Marvin

A collection of some of the best reads from the BBC News website this week, with an injection of your comments.

Poor old Marvin the clownfish from Finding Nemo. So scared of the dangers of the wide open ocean, he tries to shelter his son Nemo from ever experiencing it. Then Nemo gets lost. Can parents learn anything from the movie? "I think the film shows this style of parenting is not great and still not a guarantee of accidents not happening," parenting expert Sarah Ockwell-Smith explains. How about tips that parents can glean from other films? On the 50th anniversary of Mary Poppins, Lucy Townsend looked into the lessons learned from flicks including Mrs Doubtfire, The Sound of Music and Home Alone. Readers were quick to chime in with their own lessons - most of them obviously very serious:

  • Carlos: "Never let kids play board games found in the attic" (Jumanji)
  • Wordluster: "never take your kids to a natural theme park" (Jurassic Park)
  • Paul Hamer: "if you make yr nephew sleep in a cupboard under the stairs it will end badly for you" (Harry Potter)
  • Karl Turner: "It's not safe to go back in the water" (Jaws)
  • Belinda Bauer: "ALWAYS hide the keys to the garage" (Ferris Bueller's Day Off)
  • Paula Deane Traynham: "I tried to follow the advice in Bringing Up Baby but the leopard kept eating the children"
  • Francesca Stephens: "Never experiment with shrink rays" (Honey I Shrunk the Kids)
  • Jupiterup: "don't let your kid bike around empty hotel hallways" (The Shining)
  • Shalini Lachmandas: "I always told my kids if u can't say something nice don't say nothing at all" (Bambi)
  • Michelle Lightwood-J: "The idea that being different is perfectly acceptable" (The Addams Family)
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Sheikhs and Sandhurst
Sheikh Hamad Bin Isa Al Khalifa, King Abdullah, Sultan Qaboos Sandhurst alumni: King Hamad of Bahrain, King Abdullah of Jordan and Sultan Qaboos of Oman

Four reigning Arab monarchs are graduates of Sandhurst. There's King Abdullah of Jordan, King Hamad of Bahrain, Sheikh Tamim, Emir of Qatar, and Sultan Qaboos of Oman. But they're just a handful of the numerous foreign royals - particularly from the Middle East - who have learned how to be military leaders at the UK's famous officer training academy. But is it such a good idea? asked Matthew Teller. Some say that it gives future world leaders a strong connection to the UK, earning it more attention than similar-sized countries and facilitating trade relationships. But others say the UK is delivering militarily-trained officers to Middle Eastern monarchies where the onus is often on defending the ruling family, with little regard for democracy. Adeel Hassan ‏@adeelnyt tweeted: "This feels...icky." Naz Ahmed @Monty_786 merely said: "Shocking..." And Michael Theodoulou ‏@MichaelTheodoul tweeted: "Good BBC piece on Gulf royals at #Sandhurst One Brit says helps us 'punch above our weight'. I hate that phrase."

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Etiquette of reclining
Two men on a plane disagree about one reclining his seat

Heard of a Knee Defender? It costs $21.95 (£13) and it also cost recent passengers one uninterrupted plane journey. Their plane had to be diverted after one passenger used it to stop another from reclining her seat, which caused a bit of a stir. So when is it acceptable to lean back at 30,000ft, asked Jon Kelly. Ashley in Penang, Malaysia, emailed: "As someone with a reoccurring back issue, I need to recline seats on some airplanes at least an inch, otherwise it's too painful." Ivanhoe Trousers ‏@ivanhoetrousers was meanwhile undeterred by the consequences on the US flight: "Will have to buy a Seat Defender. Such a good idea!" Others viewed the issue in economic terms. Free2SaySo ‏@ikwan_01 overcame a dodgy caps lock key to tweet: "YOU PAY, yes PAY for Reclining Seat ..... so USE IT .... or get Refund from those who Whinge!" Parvez A. Khatri was more equivocal when he emailed: "Everyone have the right to do (what is allowed) but I am totally against reclining. I never recline and feel in trouble when other in front reclines in full."

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A Mormon apostate?
Kate Kelly shows a digital copy of the letter which informed her of her excommunication Kate Kelly shows a digital copy of the letter which informed her of her excommunication

"We're talking about an Inquisition," says Kate Kelly. "The men who punished me think they are kicking me out of heaven." Kelly thinks she's an obedient Mormon. But her church leadership clearly does not - she's been excommunicated from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) for founding a campaign to ordain women to the priesthood. Jane Little spoke to human rights lawyer Kelly, who said: "Excommunication in our Church is for really grave sins like murder and child abuse. I was excommunicated for stating a fact, which is that men and women are not equal in our Church." A spokesman for the Mormon Church - which claims 15 million members worldwide - insisted that women already have a lot of responsibility in the Church. Currently any male from the age of 12 and "in good standing" can join the priesthood. No female can. i ‏@i4Media tweeted: "Why are men so fearful of women being powerful?"

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Addicts behind bars
Pablo Marroquin at his rehab centre

This is Pablo Marroquin. A former drug addict who's been clean for 22 years, the born-again Christian now operates a private faith-based rehabilitation centre in Guatemala City. But many of the internees there - as in many other similar centres in Guatemala - are locked up behind bars against their will. The Guatemalan state does not provide for drug addicts, and these private centres have proliferated to fill the void. Linda Pressly even heard claims that in some areas addicts have been swept off the street and into these centres by "hunting parties". Otherwise they may be turned in by worried friends and family with nowhere else to turn. The strong religious foundation offers salvation for some but the strict discipline and lack of freedom raises questions for others. Zach Kump ‏@vangoghslover tweeted: "Fighting addiction with punishment has not historically yielded many positive results." Angelique Rockas ‏@A_Rockas stated: "Probably Guatemala is too poor to offer social services care !!!! Have you in yr rich land thought of this????"

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Here are some things we've enjoyed this week from elsewhere around the web:

Did I get away with felony drug-dealing charges because I'm white? - Vice

Why It's So Hard to Catch Your Own Typos - Wired

How I explained porn to my 9-year-old son - Quartz

Why Chinese patients are turning against their doctors - New Yorker

10 Historic Canal Towns to Visit That Aren't Venice - Smithsonian

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10 things we didn't know last week

Wolf yawning sitting on a rock

1. Death Valley's mysterious wandering stones are moved by blocks of ice pushed by the wind.

Find out more (Scientific American)

2. Tall men get married earlier but short men stay married longer.

Find out more (Daily Telegraph)

3. Yawning is contagious for wolves, especially among their friends, probably because they are feeling empathy.

Find out more (Smithsonian)

4. Longhand notes are better for taking in conceptual information than inputting notes into laptop.

Find out more (Washington Post)

5. Hello Kitty is not a cat - she's a little girl.

Find out more (Jezebel)

6. At the current birth rate, there will be no South Koreans by 2750.

Find out more (Quartz)

7. David Cameron is a 13th cousin of Kim Kardashian.

Find out more (Daily Mail)

8. Walking in formation makes people feel stronger and leads them to take different decisions.

Find out more (Inside Science)

9. People's favourite tunes - regardless of genre - create strikingly similar brain activity.

Find out more (Smithsonian)

10. A bassett hound can be reclassified as a "very large cat" at Selwyn College Cambridge if the pet belongs to the master of the college - dogs are banned at Selwyn.

Find out more

Seen a thing? Tell the Magazine on Twitter using the hashtag #thingIdidntknowlastweek

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Quiz of the week's news


It's the Magazine's 7 days, 7 questions quiz - an opportunity to prove to yourself and others that you are a news oracle. Failing that, you can always claim to have had better things to do during the past week than swot up on current affairs.

7 days

1.) Multiple Choice Question

A Frenchman has lodged a criminal complaint against American Airlines after cabin crew asked him to get off a flight to the US. Why was he ordered off?

  1. Unsuitable reading matter
  2. Body odour
  3. Unsuitable piercing
  4. Snoring

2.) Multiple Choice Question

What kept Samantha Disney on holiday in Tunisia for three weeks longer than planned?

  1. Fear of flying
  2. Wrongly on no-fly list
  3. Getting lost

3.) Missing Word Question

' * compost' tackles food problem

  1. Quinoa
  2. Popcorn
  3. Cricket

4.) Multiple Choice Question

It's been revealed that the character behind the famous Hello Kitty brand is not a cat. What is she?

  1. Raccoon
  2. Squirrel
  3. Girl

5.) Multiple Choice Question

James Bond fans are being given the chance to recreate the famous bungee jump from GoldenEye on the Contra Dam. In which country?

  1. Switzerland
  2. Austria
  3. Canada
  4. Venezuela

6.) Multiple Choice Question

Which was the only 21st Century song to have made it into BBC Radio Two's top 20 greatest guitar riffs of all time?

  1. The Strokes - Last Night
  2. Kings of Leon - Sex on Fire
  3. Arctic Monkeys - Do I Wanna Know
  4. Green Day - American Idiot

7.) Multiple Choice Question

Austria's Social Democrat Party has been upset by the disappearance of 400 what?

  1. Gnomes
  2. Lederhosen
  3. Elk antlers


  1. It was body odour. The passenger, of Algerian origin, is alleging racial discrimination.
  2. It was her fear of flying. Unable to fly back, she and her fiance ended up paying an extra 5,000 before getting home.
  3. It was cricket. A Canadian university student has devised a way to use scraps to create nutritious crickets.
  4. She is indeed apparently supposed to be a human girl. Despite looking like a stylised cat. Anthropologist Christine R Yano established the truth.
  5. It was Switzerland. The jump is 720ft.
  6. It was the Arctic Monkeys one. Whole Lotta Love by Led Zeppelin was top.
  7. It was the gnomes. They were being used by the left wing Social Democrat Party as part of election campaigning.

Your Score

0 - 3 : Dopey

4 - 6 : Grumpy

7 - 7 : Happy

For past quizzes including our weekly news quiz, 7 days 7 questions, expand the grey drop-down below - also available on the Magazine page (and scroll down).

You can follow the Magazine on Twitter and on Facebook

The odd objects looted from Washington DC in 1814

A painting of the White House on fire by Tom Freeman The Burning of Washington in 1814 by British troops, as depicted by Tom Freeman

It's been 200 years since the British burned Washington, but objects looted in 1814 will probably never be returned, writes Tammy Thueringer.

Other than an off-colour tweet and subsequent apology by the British Embassy, the bicentennial of the punitive mission of 1814 that left the US capital in flames has received little attention this week.

The burning was one of the final events of the often-forgotten War of 1812, a conflict which saw the US try and fail to grab bits of Canada and Britain try and fail to blockade the US. British troops torched the White House, Treasury and parts of the Capitol Building in a punitive mission near the end of the war. They also looted what they could, effectively collecting "souvenirs".

After the attack, the Royal Navy sailed to Bermuda with their spoils, included four paintings of King George III and Queen Charlotte, a grandfather clock and President James Madison's personal government receipt book.

Today, the artworks hang in two Bermuda government buildings and the clock is in private hands.

The Bermuda House of Assembly

The destruction of Washington was in retaliation for an earlier US attack on the Parliament of Lower Canada at York (now Toronto). The US also looted, taking a royal standard, the first Mace of Ontario, a golden staff used by Upper Canada's Parliament, and a lion statuette, carved out of wood and painted gold.

Today, the standard and lion are just two of the hundreds of "trophies of war" on display at the US Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland.

A statue of a lion The wooden lion taken by the US in April 1813 from the Legislature of Upper Canada in York (now Toronto)

The "trophies" in Bermuda and Maryland will probably stay there, at least in part because of the American Civil War-era "Lieber Code". The US declared that items captured from an enemy in time of war can be kept. The laws only applied to American forces, but other states adopted similar regulations.

Since then, several international laws prohibiting wartime looting have been created, but the original code also remains in effect.

James Madison and the government receipts and expenditures book James Madison, president at the time, and the government receipt book looted in 1814

Despite that original code, some of the looted items have made it home.

In 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered the return of the mace and Madison's receipt book was returned to the Library of Congress in 1940.

The scorch marks of the fire are still visible today on the White House as two areas have been left unpainted Scorch marks of the fire are still visible today on the White House as two areas have been left unpainted

But as for the paintings of the British royals, the Americans seem unlikely to press for their return.

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Caption Challenge: Mr Full Moon

Mr Full Moon cleaning

Winning entries in the Caption Challenge.

The competition is now closed.

This week an unidentified man, who calls himself Mangetsu-man (Mr Full Moon), cleans Nihonbashi bridge in Tokyo using a broom.

Thanks to all who entered. The prize of a small amount of kudos to the following:

6. Graham Bell:

"I fell asleep listening to yellow by Coldplay and the next thing I knew..."

5. Bramer:

He was caught daylighting as a cleaner.

4. Lin Vegas:

"Drop any more litter and you'll soon see my dark side."

3. Gareth Collins:

Filming of the new low-budget movie "Frank Sidebottom versus Godzilla" begins in Tokyo.

2. Matt:

"I'm hoping to make waves when I go out in this outfit".

1. Waldo:

Life in 2014 was not good for Pac-Man.

PDF download Full rules can be seen here[16KB]

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Zara's 'Holocaust uniform' and other clothing errors

Zara shirt

It was meant to be a Wild West-inspired T-shirt for children, but to some people a children's top by Zara looked like an eerie reminder of the prison clothing victims of the Holocaust wore. How do clothes brands get some things so wrong, asks Chris Stokel-Walker.

Zara's blue-and-white striped shirt was designed for toddlers up to three years old and featured raking buttons on the left shoulder - with a six-pointed gold badge.

Zoom into the photo and you see the badge says "sheriff". But at the standard resolution on an online catalogue, social media users spotted it looked like the kind of yellow stars Jews in Nazi-occupied territory were forced to wear. Combined with the stripes - reminiscent of prison camp garb - and the Holocaust link was clear.

Zara has apologised repeatedly to Twitter users. "The item in question has now been removed from sale. The garment was inspired by the classic Western films, but we now recognise that the design could be seen as insensitive and apologise sincerely for any offence caused to our customers," the company says.

Offence was surely not intended, but it's not the first time the fashion chain has sold questionable merchandise. In 2007 it withdrew a handbag featuring a green embroidered swastika inside a red sun.

Zara, owned by the Spanish clothing giant Inditex, is not the only fashion seller to get things wrong. Two years ago Urban Outfitters published a prototype version of a T-shirt for sale on its website. The yellow T-shirt with a similar six-pointed star also drew attention for its resemblance to a Star of David.

Footwear brands have offended on a number of occasions. Umbro apologised in 2002 for naming a shoe Zyklon, the gas used in concentration camps. Adidas said sorry for a trainer that featured shackles reminiscent of those used on slaves. And Nike admitted a mistake in naming a pair of trainers Black and Tans to commemorate St Patrick's Day. They had not appreciated the link with the British force of that name deployed to Ireland after World War One which had a reputation for brutality against civilians.

Mark Gardner of the Community Security Trust, a Jewish community group that records incidents of anti-Semitism, isn't enormously impressed by the latest gaffe. "Whatever Zara's intention, many people will be really shocked that this could ever have made it past the design stage," he says.

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The etiquette of reclining seats on flights

Man on plane

A US flight had to be diverted after one passenger prevented another from reclining her seat, according to reports. When is it acceptable to lean back at 30,000ft, asks Jon Kelly.

You can see the nervous glances on any flight when the seatbelt light is pinged off, as each passenger anxiously wonders: "Do I have a recliner in front of me? Are my precious seven inches of legroom safe?"

Incursions into personal space are a familiar source of aggravation at high altitudes. So it's not surprising that, according to reports, a United Airlines flight from Newark to Denver was diverted when a passenger prevented the woman in front of him from leaning back using a $21.95 (£13) lock called a Knee Defender. The plastic clips go on the metal arms of the tray table, physically preventing the seat in front from being reclined. The clips come with a card that can be given to affected passengers to explain the motivation of the user.

Knee Defender

After the passenger allegedly refused requests from cabin crew to remove the Knee Defender, the un-laid back fellow traveller in front allegedly hurled a glass of water at him.

The man's methods may be extreme, but some travellers - unable to work on their laptops, eat, or simply enjoy the meagre proportions of economy class to the full as a result of leaners-back - will sympathise. For some time now, a backlash against reclining has been under way.

Earlier this year, a frequent business traveller's call for a "revolt" against reclining seats went viral. A survey by Skyscanner in 2013 suggested nine out of 10 travellers wanted to see them banned. Another poll for indicated that more than 60% of international cabin crew had observed an argument between passengers as a result of them.

Woman asleep on plane

It's not just the manufacturers of the Knee Defender that have sought to capitalise. In May Monarch Airlines announced plans to scrap reclining seats, following the example set by Ryanair.

But recliners can offer reasonable excuses. They may be very tall or affected by other physical impairments. On a red-eye, different rules apply - everyone wants to maximise their chances of catching an hour or two of sleep.

So what to do? The advice offered by Debrett's is to "ease your chair gently into a reclining position, which will avoid a sudden invasion of the limited legroom of the passenger behind".

Etiquette expert Jean Broke-Smith takes a firmer line. On overnight flights there is a tacit understanding that everyone will lean back when the lights go off, she says. On long-haul journeys it is acceptable. Otherwise, she says, "I think it's very rude." She adds: "At the very least, you should turn around and say, 'Excuse me' first."

Asking passengers to talk politely to each other? Fasten your seatbelts now, please.

Send us your views on reclining using the form on the right.

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The drunken monkey that smashed up a bar

"A Monkey's Diversion", Illustrated Police News

The British Newspaper Archive is a treasure trove of outlandish tales from the Victorian press. Author Jeremy Clay tells the story of a monkey that went on a drunken rampage.

The place was a mess. Shards of broken glass were strewn across the counter and the floor. Bottles were broken. Mirrors were smashed. Chairs were scattered. Tables were upended.

If there was one small consolation for the newly-toothless owner of Reilly's Hotel, as he swept up the debris in the wrecked bar, it was this - the instigator of the brawl had been captured and led away. He was in a cell now. Or a cage. One of the two.

It all began, as these things so often do, with a drink. One drink, which led to another, then more besides. Each one, generously given by a genial customer. Each one eagerly slurped by the monkey chained to the bar.

But after four cocktails the Coney Island jackanapes started to mislay its manners. It demanded yet more booze. When its benefactor refused, it seized a whisky bottle and knocked him senseless to the floor.

Victorian Strangeness

Colt pistol

A series of bizarre episodes culled from 19th Century newspapers by Jeremy Clay.

The horrified bartender lunged forward and tried to seize the brute but, even with that chain, it was too agile. Grabbing another bottle, it landed a blow on him too.

"The monkey then stood at the back of the bar and pelted everyone with bottles and glasses, several persons being wounded," reported the Manchester Evening News in September 1899.

"The proprietor tried to quiet the beast, but received a bottle of Vermouth in the face, and had some of his front teeth knocked out. The monkey smashed all the mirrors and every bottle of liquor it could reach."

At last, the police arrived. After taking a startled moment or two to size up the scene, they hit on a solution and lassoed the creature. Calm returned to Reilly's. Whether the cantankerous monkey ever did is another matter altogether.

Jeremy Clay is the author of The Burglar Caught by a Skeleton, and Other Singular Tales from the Victorian Press.

Illustrated Police News image provided by the British Library Board.

Discover more about what life was like in Victorian times and 10 truly bizarre Victorian deaths

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Politicians and their shipping containers

Imran Khan on top of a shipping container Imran Khan and his customised shipping container on 20 August

Forget the soapbox - the must-have accessory for the modern politician in Pakistan seems to be the shipping container. Even Imran Khan is said to have spent more than $120,000 (£70,000) on one, reports Fahad Desmukh.

"These containers that you have placed on all four sides are not enough to stop this ocean of people!" declared cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan at a rally on Tuesday night. He was addressing Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, and the "containers" he was referring to were shipping containers.

The government had placed hundreds of the giant steel boxes on Islamabad's roads to block protesters and stop them moving freely through the city.

A shipping container roadblock being put in place

But the marchers brought cranes with them, moved the containers out of the way, and are now camped out at the gates of parliament.

A crane moving shipping containers at night Supporters of Tahir ul-Qadri moving containers out of the way on August 19

For the past week and a half, Pakistanis have been glued to their TV screens to see what will become of the latest attempt to topple the government. The new push is being led by two different forces. One is Khan, whose party won the third highest number of seats in last year's elections. The other is Tahir ul-Qadri, a religious leader holding Canadian dual-citizenship.

Find out more

  • Fahad Desmukh reported on Pakistani politicians' love of shipping containers on the Fifth Floor on the BBC World Service

The men are leading separate sit-ins in Islamabad, hoping to force Sharif to resign.

For the past five years, the government has placed containers near key state institutions in all Pakistan's major cities, ready to be moved into position whenever a mob approaches. Many of the containers have the official police logo painted on them so that there is no question about ownership.

But party workers have discovered that containers make excellent stages for rallies and they are now an essential item for any big political event.

Imran Khan making a speech on top of his shipping container Imran Khan making a speech on top of his shipping container

To the endless fascination of Pakistan's media, they can also be converted into mobile homes. In January last year, ul-Qadri held a four-day sit-in in Islamabad. While his supporters were out on the street, he slept inside his customised container, fitted with heating and a bathroom. Recently it was widely reported that Khan's party had had a container converted at a cost of some 12.5m Pakistani rupees ($124,000; £75,000). The BBC contacted their office but they declined to comment on that figure. It must be said that in TV reports the box does not come over as the last word in luxury. But it is equipped with meeting facilities, a bathroom, and a nifty spiral staircase leading to the roof - and is supposedly bomb-proof.

Ul-Qadri making a speech inside his shipping container Ul-Qadri making a speech inside his shipping container

For all the enthusiasm for shipping containers from police and protestors alike, they have made life difficult for many of the residents in the capital. Some have had to take long routes to work to bypass the roadblocks, or have been stuck in traffic jams. And the head of a private transporters' association has complained that the authorities have seized about 1,400 containers from them in the past two weeks, and offered the owners compensation at less than half the market rate.

People on motorbikes getting past shipping containers Imran Khan's supporters find a way past shipping containers

Fahad Desmukh reported on Pakistani politicians' love of shipping containers on the Fifth Floor on the BBC World Service. Listen to the programme again on iPlayer or get the Fifth Floor podcast.

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10 things we didn't know last week

Woman listening to music while making online purchase

1. The Prince of Wales has an official harpist.

Find out more (Daily Mail)

2. Snakes squeeze tree trunks far harder than necessary.

Find out more

3. Richard III was partial to swan, crane, heron and egret, and drank a bottle of wine a day after becoming king.

Find out more

4. Classical music is the worst genre to listen to for thrifty online shopping.

Find out more (the Times)

5. It used to be believed that until 1903 the Auld Alliance made it possible for French people to claim Scottish nationality and vice-versa, although there's no record of this ever actually happening.

Find out more

6. Senior technology gurus at the White House don't have to tuck their shirts in.

Find out more (The Hill)

7. Italy has a national law permitting hunting with bow and arrow.

Find out more (Daily Telegraph)

8. Baby corals and fish can smell the difference between good and decaying reefs.

Find out more

9. Whether one eats breakfast or not appears to have no impact on losing weight.

Find out more (Well)

10. River turtles chat to each other using at least six different sounds.

Find out more

Seen a thing? Tell the Magazine on Twitter using the hashtag #thingIdidntknowlastweek

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Go Figure: The week in numbers

Look back at the week in numbers with our Go Figure images, which are posted daily on social media.

Nasa graphic

Monday: Exotic grains from cosmos identified

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Gisele graphic

Tuesday: Gisele Bundchen top-earning model for eighth year

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Apples graphic

Wednesday:EU compensates fruit and veg growers hit by Russian ban

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Neanderthals graphic

Thursday: New dates rewrite Neanderthal story

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Ebola food crisis graphic

Friday: Ebola crisis: The economic impact

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Find #BBCGoFigure on Twitter and on Facebook

Weekendish: Surrogacy confusion and tailgating

Michael Scott Kline and Nick Scott with surrogate mother Sarah Jones and child Elliot Michael Scott Kline and Nick Scott with their child Eliot, and surrogate mother Sarah Jones

A collection of some of the best reads from the BBC News website this week, with an injection of your comments.

It's not easy to navigate the UK's legal minefield on surrogacy. So here's a quick round-up. Surrogacy itself is legal. But advertising for a surrogate or to offer your services, is not. It's illegal to pay a fee to a surrogate. But expenses of up to £15,000 for medical bills, clothes and time lost are allowed to be paid. Still with us? Spare a thought for those going through the complicated process, some of whom spoke to Catrin Nye and Smita Patel. And the complexities aren't over yet. If the surrogate mother is married, the birth is automatically registered with both her and her husband's name - even if the husband has no biological link to the baby. Once a child is born the surrogate has no obligation to give it up. But a change of mind can happen on both sides. Trust is therefore vital to the system - and don't expect the Department of Health to change the system any time soon. Perhaps that's why Machajo @machajo tweeted: "I am very glad that Germany does not allow surrogacy."

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Rising anti-Semitism in the West?
Graph showing levels of anti-Semitic incidents 2002-12

Following the latest conflict in Israel and Gaza, newspapers have reported a "dramatic rise in global anti-Semitism". But are the claims backed up by evidence, asks the BBC's James Fletcher. Synagogues and Jewish community centres have been bombed in France and Germany. A rabbi was attacked in Britain. The UK Association of Chief Police Officers, which has released statistics on hate crime since 2009, spoke of a "significant rise" in anti-Semitism since the latest fighting began in Gaza in early July. It echoes similar rises during previous conflicts, such as the Israeli offensive in Gaza in 2008-2009. But longer term studies show "a decline in prejudice towards minorities, and especially towards Jews," says Prof Nonna Mayer of Sciences Po University in Paris. "Actually Jews are the best accepted minority in France." Meanwhile the Pew Foundation's 2014 Global Attitudes survey suggests unfavourable attitudes towards Roma and Muslims are more prevalent in Europe than those toward Jews.

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Twickenham tailgate parties
Tailgate party

Many outside the US have never heard of a tailgate party. It's when a group of sports fans congregate in stadium car parks to drink beer and have barbecues. But while they may be a fact of life in American sport, why haven't they become a sporting staple among their British counterparts, asks Tammy Thueringer. The UK's weather and smaller car parks are just two possibilities. Perhaps the best reason is the unlikelihood of Liverpool and Man Utd fans chewing the fat of a good pre-match burger and a meaty discussion - rather than each other. But rugby may have come closest, with Twickenham the scene of so-called "Range Rover picnics". Phil Clarke ‏@triflemonster thinks we're looking in the wrong place: "Missed Ascot; where fans (racegoers) tailgate (picnic) in jerseys (top hats) round SUVs (Bentleys) in the carpark (carpark)." Meanwhile ‏Joy Bennett @joycbennett was unimpressed with the picnic description: "As for 'range rover', have you ever been to a rugby tailgate party & seen how many everyday folk enjoy them?" But Brett Robertson posted the photo below on Facebook, captioned: "BMW x5, champagne, free umbrellas, caviar and coffee! You should get down to Twickenham ASAP!"

A car park picnic with umbrellas, Range Rovers and deck chairs
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Why men pay for sex
The red light district at night

There's a stereotypical image of the kind of men who go to prostitutes. But how do the men themselves explain paying for sex? Charlotte McDonald and Jo Fidgen spoke to four men to probe some of their diverse reasons. One of them saw it as the vital step to salvage his marriage. "I ended up a highly sexed man married to a woman who really didn't enjoy sex - [or even] hugging, kissing and so on," he explained. "She's an excellent, excellent partner. In every other way we got on like a house on fire, but just not in bed. I wanted to hang on to my marriage," he added, "I wanted to do right as much as I could by my wife, so the obvious thing was to pay for it." Numerous Twitter-length theories did the rounds. Medway @medwaygooner suggested: "They like having sex with different people." Steve Skeats ‏@KingTyDu tweeted: "cos they can't get what they want for free? #nobrainer." Mike Grace ‏@ZeRootOfAllEvil was more blunt: "1) To have sex. 2) See 1)."

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Auld Alliance
Two people face-painted with Scottish and French flags

The BBC's Hugh Schofield tried to get to the bottom of the Auld Alliance - France and Scotland's ancient special relationship. For 400 years a tiny town in central France belonged to a branch of the Stuarts. Every year on Bastille Day it holds a Scottish festival with pipers, haggis and whisky. "The French have always loved the Scots, and the Scots have always loved the French," says Remi Beguin, a cultural expert in Aubigny. "We are like a couple." So much so that independence is being hotly debated in the town's bars and boulangeries. Most people are for independence on an emotional level, says Francois Gresset, the town's deputy mayor. But the political establishment in Paris are less enthusiastic - although they are making no public statements on the matter. "For France the argument against Scottish independence is our dream of a strong United Kingdom, fully engaged in Europe," a political scientist explains. Haggis et whisky bon, independence mal, Monsieur le President? Peut-etre.

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Here are some things we've enjoyed this week from elsewhere around the web:

The Strange & Curious Tale of the Last True Hermit - GQ

Herve This: The world's weirdest chef - Prospect

Why the World Smells Different After It Rains - The Atlantic

What Makes People Look Like Their Pets? - Slate

Smell of Ebola Lingers as Health Workers Fight Disease - Bloomberg

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The backlash against banter

Malky Mackay

The use of the word "banter" to describe Malky Mackay's "disrespectful" text messages has been the focus of widespread criticism. The case raises questions about the way the word is used, says Lucy Townsend.

The League Managers Association's use of the phrase "friendly text message banter" in relation to former Cardiff City manager Mackay's texts - which it acknowledged were "disrespectful of other cultures" - provoked an angry reaction.

Former England player Stan Collymore attacked the LMA for its "acceptance of the 'banter' of casual racism". has described it as "the day banter died". said the term was "frequently used to obfuscate and trivialise issues that continue to impair football's integrity".

The LMA subsequently apologised, saying it had not meant to "trivialise matters of a racist, sexist or homophobic nature".

But debate around the word continues.

Banter, meaning to ridicule, is centuries old. Playwright Thomas D'Urfey used it in Madam Fickle in 1677. "Banter him, banter him Toby. 'Tis a conceited old Scarab, and will yield us excellent sport," he wrote.

The cast of The Inbetweeners

Banter has become recognised as the comedy of lads. The Inbetweeners 2 film sees the boys indulge in "full-on bants". They talk of the "The Archbishop of Banterbury" and "Bantom of the Opera". It is good-natured mickey-taking based on tacit consent between friends.

But sometimes what some people regard as "just banter" is not considered so funny by others.

When Australian cricket captain Michael Clarke used an obscenity while warning an opposing player to expect a broken arm, he insisted it was "banter". Cricket's authorities did not agree. He was later found guilty of breaching the International Cricket Council (ICC) code of conduct.

The problem with "banter" is that people use it as an excuse to say something unpleasant and then distance themselves from it, says Daily Telegraph assistant comment editor Tom Chivers.

"I hate the way the word is used to cover up something bad and horribly offensive. It's not bants, it's not LOLs, it's completely grim.

"Banter is saying that if you find this offensive then you're the one in the wrong because it's just banter and you don't get it."

There's a big difference between friendly teasing and bullying. For this reason, banter will always have its defenders. But for others, it has become associated with the latter rather than the former.

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Caption Challenge: Bed of nails

A woman watches as another takes a selfie on a iron wire bed at Beijing Art Now Gallery.

Winning entries in the Caption Challenge.

The competition is now closed.

This week, a woman watches as another takes a selfie on an iron wire bed at Beijing Art Now Gallery.

Thanks to all who entered. The prize of a small amount of kudos to the following:

6. Tony Auffret:

Suzie thought her friend had said she had a brill pad.

5. Sue Wade:

"According to IKEA we should have one more nail."

4. Joni Letch:

"I didn't make it so why should I have to lie on it?"

3. Graz Valentine:

"It's not very comfortable - I reckon there's a pea under the mattress."

2. Ben Harvell:

"Fortunately, I'm hammered."

1. Chris Grey:

"Think of the laundry we won't have to do."

PDF download Full rules can be seen here[16KB]

Follow @BBCNewsMagazine on Twitter and on Facebook

Could the cravat make a comeback?

Edward Fox, Michael Caine, Francie Matthews - all wearing cravats

Noted cravat-wearer Nicholas Parsons has lamented the neckwear's retreat from frontline fashion. Is it about to make a comeback, asks Jon Kelly.

Unfasten your top button and start polishing the brass buttons on your blazer. It's time for men to start wearing cravats again, insists Just A Minute presenter Nicholas Parsons, and who are the rest of us to argue?

"I have lots of lovely cravats," Parsons, 90, wistfully told an Edinburgh audience, adding that he'd "really rather like" other men to follow suit. "I've seen people with beautifully tailored jackets on, with an open shirt there with an awful Adam's apple," he shuddered.

For years the cravat was synonymous with a particular type of gin-quaffing, yacht-sailing, smooth-talking rake.

Peter O'Toole and Nicholas Parsons Old school - the late Peter O'Toole, and Nicholas Parsons...

David Niven. Michael Caine. Alan Whicker. Edward Fox in The Day of the Jackal. Cravat-wearers to a man. And of course there is the gentleman who exemplifies smart-casual neckwear more than any other - Sir Roger Moore, who memorably sports a striking burgundy number in A View to a Kill.

The cravat was first popularised in the 17th Century when it was worn by Croatian mercenaries who distinguished themselves fighting for Louis XIII of France (the name is derived from a la Croate - in the style of the Croats).

It was a status symbol in Restoration England, while Beau Brummel's stiffer, more formal version ensured its popularity in the Regency era. By the 19th Century, when the look was adopted by Oscar Wilde and other members of the Aesthetic Movement, "it had become associated with this idea of the peacock, this very dandy type of look", says fashion historian Amber Butchart.

It mutated into different forms - notably the Ascot tie, worn with morning dress. But it was the day cravat - a silk scarf worn under an open-necked shirt - that became widely recognisable in the 20th Century, adopted by Cary Grant and the Duke of Windsor alike.

Martin Freeman; Orlando Bloom ... and the new guard: Martin Freeman and Orlando Bloom

Thanks to Terry-Thomas and Leslie Phillips, however, the style became associated with a kind of parodic caddishness.

It became naff. Perhaps the most prominent cravat-wearer in 1970s Britain was Paul Eddington's put-upon suburbanite Jerry in the Good Life. Then there was Alan Partridge, who insisted a cravat was essential to looking like "the classic English gentleman abroad".

But the huge popularity of Alexander McQueen's 2004 skull scarf, and the modern dandy look popularised by Russell Brand, has made the cravat ripe for a comeback, Butchart believes. "It's very functional - in the sweltering heat, the silk helps keep you cool, and when it's cold outside it protects you from the elements," says fashion blogger and cravat enthusiast GM Norton.

The world's first Nicholas Parsons-driven fashion revolution is surely under way.

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How unhealthy is two years indoors?

Julian Assange in August 2014 and in February 2012 Julian Assange in August 2014 and in February 2012

Julian Assange says he will leave the Ecuadorean Embassy in London "soon". There's been speculation he is suffering from illness, so what is the potential health impact of two years indoors, asks Tom de Castella.

The Wikileaks founder took refuge in the embassy in June 2012 to avoid extradition to Sweden to face questioning over alleged sex assaults. He faces arrest if he leaves the building.

Assange told a press conference that he had no access to outside areas. Even healthy people would have difficulty living inside for so long, he said. Claiming he would be out "soon", he was vague on when or why.

The Answer

  • Vitamin D necessary for health and mood
  • Sunlight easiest way to get Vitamin D
  • Mental attitude to being confined is crucial

Media reports have suggested he needs treatment for a range of health problems - arrhythmia, high blood pressure and a chronic cough.

The biggest implication for physical health of being inside for so long is vitamin D deficiency, says Sarah Jarvis, doctor for the BBC's One Show. About 85-90% of people's vitamin D comes from sunshine. Dozens of conditions have been associated with low vitamin D levels, from depression and aches and pains to osteoporosis and heart disease.

Vitamin D tablets don't seem to have much effect, says Simon Griffin, professor of general practice at Cambridge University. A sunbed or UV lamp would work but over two years this would be inadvisable - they are linked with melanoma, a form of skin cancer. And Assange has already spoken of a "boiled lobster" moment from a sunlamp.

It's unlikely two years inside would damage the body greatly if someone took action to make sure they were getting some daylight, exercise and eating a healthy diet, says Griffin. Air conditioning is unlikely to harm Assange. The most likely harm would be a flattening of mood, Griffin says. Sunlight makes people feel happier. There is a balcony at the embassy - Assange has occasionally addressed supporters from it. Even just exposing face and forearms to the sun regularly would help avoid feeling down, Griffin says.

One thing that's impossible to gauge is Assange's mental state. Maintaining it is all about how you perceive your situation, says clinical psychologist Linda Blair. When he first arrived Assange had evaded capture. He might have felt euphoric. But two years on, he is still there. "It's about an attitude really. It makes us very aggressive when we are denied our freedom."

Some prisoners of war have managed to play games and celebrate the fact they are still alive in terrible conditions, Blair says. "You don't have to feel trapped. Feeling you have control is critical."

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The lawyer who shot himself proving his case

Colt pistol

Author Jeremy Clay tells the strange story of the 19th Century lawyer who accidentally shot himself while demonstrating the innocence of a defendant in a murder trial.

"I have foolishly shot myself," winced Clement Vallandigham, sinking into a chair in his hotel room in a mixture of pain and mortification.

The calamity which ended the former congressman's days happened in the town of Lebanon, Warren County, Ohio, in 1871, halfway through the case he thought would be the greatest of his life.

At stake was a man's life. The Christmas Eve before, a rough and ready character called Thomas Myers had been playing cards in a private room above a bar in nearby Hamilton when five thugs burst in and a huge brawl broke out.

Clement Vallandigham The unfortunate Clement Vallandigham

As Myers rose, scrabbling to draw his pistol from his pocket, a muffled shot was heard. He pulled out the gun, fired off a couple of wayward rounds, then slumped back down, dead.

In the wild confusion of the moment, as gamblers fled in all directions, it wasn't clear what was happening. But when the witnesses later recounted their tales, one name came up again and again - Myers' bete noire, Thomas McGehan. No-one could say for sure that he was armed that night, but he was certainly one of the gang of gatecrashers. Everyone knew there was bad blood between the two. The judge-juries who gathered at Hamilton's street corners, shop counters and saloon bars were satisfied they had their killer.

And so it came to trial. On the evening after the prosecution had closed their arguments, Mr Vallandigham took a piece of muslin from his hotel, headed out for open land, and conducted his own CSI Ohio experiment to establish the levels of residue left by a shot fired at point-blank range.

When he was done, three live rounds remained in the chamber of his pistol. This, as we shall see, was unfortunate.

Back at the Lebanon House hotel, he was handed a parcel. Inside was Myers's gun, unloaded, and ready to be examined. Vallandigham went to his room, and lay down both pistols, side by side. You can probably guess the rest.

Still flushed with the success of his tests, the lawyer began explaining to a visitor that Myers had actually shot himself, then had a sudden brainwave - he'd stage his own demonstration.

Victorian Strangeness

A series of bizarre episodes culled from 19th Century newspapers by Jeremy Clay.

He grabbed a pistol, put it in his pocket, drew it slowly, turned the muzzle on himself and pulled the trigger.

Bang. "The unfortunate advocate had demonstrated the reasonableness of his theory," reported the Leeds Times, "but at the cost of his life."

But the dark farce was still not played out. "Hardly was he in his grave before another man killed himself while trying precisely in the same way to demonstrate how Mr Vallandigham had met his death," said the Fife Herald.

What became of McGehan? He was acquitted, only to be shot himself in Hamilton, a few years later.

"The Hamiltonians threatened to take his life if he attempted to make his home in that city," said Ohio's splendidly named Tiffin Tribune, "and they evidently don't like to be caught in a lie about a small matter of that kind."

Discover more about what life was like in Victorian times and 10 truly bizarre Victorian deaths

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How much gold can we get from mobile phones?

A phone and a bar of gold

It's said that a bag of used mobile phones contains a gram of gold. There are a lot of mobile phones in the world, so how much of the gold we need can we get from them, asks William Kremer.

There be gold in them thar smartphones, said the European Commissioner for the Environment Janez Potocnik last month. He didn't use those exact words, but that was the general idea.

"The business case is clear," he said, as he launched revised waste and recycling targets for the EU. "There's gold in waste - literally. It takes a ton of ore to get 1g of gold. But you can get the same amount from recycling the materials in 41 mobile phones."

This seems to be largely correct, whether the commissioner was talking about an imperial ton, or a metric tonne (one is 1,016kg, the other 1,000kg).

The answer

  • There is 1g of gold in about 35-40 mobile phones
  • Some 7.4 tonnes of gold is mined per day - if we got it from phones we'd run out of them in 23 days
  • Recycling phones can only provide a fraction of the gold we need

In gold-rich ore deposits, there are concentrations of gold at one or two parts per million, says Dave Holwell, an economic geologist at the University of Leicester. That equates to 1g or 2g per tonne.

And the idea that 41 handsets contain 1g of gold stems from a UN report on electronic waste. Brussels-based technology company Umicore told the BBC you can actually get this amount of gold from just 35 phones.

How much gold is there in the world?

Austrian gold

Imagine if you were a super-villain who had taken control of all the world's gold, and had decided to melt it down to make a cube. How long would the sides be?

To look at it another way, Umicore says a tonne of old phones (weighed without their batteries) yields about 300g of gold.

But the business case may not be as clear as the commissioner claims. At current gold prices, the amount in your handset is worth less than £1 ($1.67). While Umicore says extracting gold from phones is commercially viable, another company, London's Genuine Solutions Group, told the BBC it makes little or no money this way.

The wider point of Potocnik's speech was to promote what he called "the circular economy". "In essence we propose to make Europe a society without waste. To take the 600 million tons of materials contained in our waste and pump them back into productive use in the economy," he said.

More or Less: Behind the stats

Listen to More or Less on BBC Radio 4 and the World Service, or download the free podcast

Of course, you can recycle gold from a range of different products, but how far could we satisfy our appetite for gold from phones alone? According to Dave Holwell, about 2,700 tonnes of gold are produced every year from mining - about 7.4 tonnes per day. To get that from mobile phones we'd need to recycle 300m of them. And if we did that every day, the world's estimated seven billion mobile phones in active use would run out in 23 days.

Additional reporting by Keith Moore and Faizal Farook.

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10 things we didn't know last week

Atlantic salmon

1. A salmon cannon fires 40 fish a minute.

Find out more (Wired)

2. After the US, South Korea is the nation that sends the most missionaries around the world.

Find out more (The Economist)

3. It's possible to charge a phone using sweat.

Find out more

4. Wine kept in a cupboard at home ages four times as quickly as that stored in a professional cellar.

Find out more (The Times)

5. The sound of a ticking clock can make women keener to have babies younger.

Find out more (New York magazine)

6. One in 10 people in the UK does not have a close friend.

Find out more (The Independent)

7. Up to 8.5% of active Twitter users are not human.

Find out more (QZ)

8. Emails sent to employees of German auto manufacturer Daimler while they are on holiday are automatically deleted.

Find out more

9. Whales and dolphins squeal with pleasure.

Find out more (Daily Telegraph)

10. Electric cars and power tools could be powered using hemp.

Find out more

Seen a thing? Tell the Magazine on Twitter using the hashtag #thingIdidntknowlastweek

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Weekendish: Best longer reads from the week

Broken love-heart sweet

A collection of some of the best reads from the BBC News website this week, with an injection of your comments.

Can you die from a broken heart? Apparently you can, and doctors have a name for it - takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Recently, it was reported that a husband and wife in California died four hours apart after more than 62 years together. The BBC's Stephen Evans read the reports with interest as last month he had attended the funeral of a couple who had died within a week of each other. Edmund Williams had selected a poem that he had written for Margaret, his beloved wife of 60 years, to be read at her funeral. But days after, Edmund himself, died. Her funeral became their funeral - two coffins beside each other, the couple united in death as they had been in life. The poem he had written for her was read for them both. Stephanie Taylor ‏@EmpireAnts tweets: "Want to cry into your lunch? Read this it makes my heart stop just reading it." Chris Tudor ‏@christudor adds: "In Classical literature, 'dying from a broken heart' = 'suicide'." Jem Roberts tweets: "There's something wonderful in the scientific approach to 'heartbreak'."

Can you die from a broken heart?

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Secretive cult
Video still from a movie produced by the Church of the Almighty God Website testimony from members includes pledges to stick by beliefs and resist the Communist Party

Members of the Church of the Almighty God in China are about to face trial for a savage murder carried out at a McDonald's restaurant earlier this year. In China this secretive cult is banned - but it claims to have a million members and it also claims that the Communist Party is allied with Satan. It's core belief is that God has returned to Earth as a Chinese woman to wreak the apocalypse. Here's what one of the accused said from his prison cell about the McDonald's killing: "I beat her with all my might and stamped on her too. She was a demon. We had to destroy her." The BBC's China editor Carrie Gracie has been looking into the cult and speaking to families who have lost relatives to it - including one man who went undercover to rescue his wife and father-in-law. "Interesting, but scary," says @DyfedWyn. It's "unbelievable that this happens and people actually believe it", tweets @aarondolman.

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Uncharted territory
Tree upon a peak in Darien

It's hard to imagine, but there are still some unexplored places left in the world. There's a reason why the Darien Gap, a break in the Pan-American Highway with a length of between 100km and 160km (60-100 miles), has defeated travellers for centuries. It's Panama's answer to the Bermuda Triangle - with wild tropical forest, mountains, a web of rivers, jaguars, armed drug runners and lethal pit vipers. There is no way around it except by sea. You can count on two hands the number of successful expeditions - the first being in 1960, when it was crossed by jeep. Another, more recent, was when a team of scientists went to study fish that use electrical signals for navigation and communication. Travel writer Carolyn McCarthy profiles the inhospitable territory. Veronica Baruffati ‏@vrroni tweets: "The gap in the world's longest road. Hitchhiking from Canada to Tierra del Fuego late 70s, Darien Gap was impassable." Jane ‏@JusJane53 adds: "Does there have to be roads everywhere???"

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Shots in the darkness
Carey McWilliams

Carey McWilliams came to international attention in 2001 when he became the first blind person to be given a licence to carry a concealed weapon. He is also a hunter. He says that when when ducks fly across the sky, they make a sound like bicycle tyres on a pavement, and he traces them with the barrels of his rifle. Since gaining his permit, McWilliams has mentored nearly 100 other blind Americans. William Kremer speaks to one who says he likes the fact that if you put the words "world's best target shooter" into Google, his name pops up.

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Changing times
Two people at Pride in the UK, one holding a "Trans & Proud" sign

In previous decades a boxing promoter coming out as transgender might have received a hostile response. But perhaps the most noteworthy aspect of Kellie Maloney, formerly Frank, announcing her new identity was an almost uniformly positive reaction in the media and beyond. In times gone by, people who underwent gender reassignment surgery were described in the press with a mixture of ridicule and amazement. In the UK it took the 2010 Equality Act to grant equal access to employment as well as private and public services. Tom de Castella looks at how times have changed. "This is why visibility matters," says @CheshireKaz. There's a lesson from this story, tweets @DrKarenOughton: "Treat others with the courtesy you'd like to receive."

Here are some things we've enjoyed this week from elsewhere around the web:

Escape From Syria - Newsweek

Desert Silence - Aeon Magazine

How to Be Polite - Medium

Falling: Love and Marriage in a Conservative Indian Family - Longreads

In The Clearing Stands a Boxer - The Big Roundtable

Subscribe to the BBC News Magazine's email newsletter to get articles sent to your inbox.

Go Figure: The week in numbers

Look back at the week in numbers with our Go Figure images, which are posted daily on social media.

Smartphones in China graphic

Monday: Samsung faces Chinese and Indian mobile challengers

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Robin Williams graphic

Tuesday: Robin Williams: His best on-screen roles

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Catholicism in South Korea graphic

Wednesday: Pope Francis faces greatest challenge yet in Asia

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Pan-American Highway graphic

Thursday: Silent Darien: The gap in the world's longest road

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Robot graphic

Friday: Thousand-strong robot swarm throws shapes, slowly

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Find #BBCGoFigure on Twitter and on Facebook

Caption Challenge: Westminster Shauns

Shaun the Sheep sculptures

Winning entries in the Caption Competition.

The Caption Challenge is now closed.

This week sculptures of Shaun the Sheep stand on display in Parliament Square, London.

Thanks to all who entered. The prize of a small amount of kudos to the following:

6. Ian Carter:

"Shear, Shear!"

5. Phjil Harper:

House of Lords new woolsack down to last six contestants.

4. Adrian Wade:

The "Eat More Beef, Turkey and Pork Coalition" gets ready to lobby MPs.

3. Catherine O:

The neighs have it because we spent too long in the baa.

2. IABP:

"Could you all leap excitedly in the air holding your results."

1. John Ledbury:

"They may call it democracy, but make no mistake lads, it was definitely mint sauce."

PDF download Full rules can be seen here[16KB]

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What can and can't you put on headstones?


A priest has allegedly asked a grieving family to remove a headstone from a churchyard because of an "inappropriate" inscription. But what is and isn't allowed, asks Chris Stokel-Walker.

The headstone commemorating warehouseman Mike Howsley's grave at St Mary's Church in Bamber Bridge, Lancashire, had an inscription featuring the names of his wife and daughter and ending "Sleep tight Dad", all adorned with an "x" to represent kisses. But his family say the local parish priest asked for it to be removed.

"It's a major can of worms," says Darryl Jones, a member of the National Federation of Funeral Directors. "There is no actual hard and fast set rule," Jones explains, which creates disputes. "Some vicars make up their own rules," he adds, noting that this is not the first case of which he has heard. Last year the family of a maths-loving grandfather was asked by their local parish council to alter engravings on a headstone which depicted a half-filled Sudoku square.

The answer

  • Churches leave issues to discretion of priest
  • Rules unclear for municipal graveyards

"There's a bit of snobbery around this," continues Jones. "Vicars don't want kisses - they seem to think it can make the yard look distasteful. But vicars have no right to deny people the right to say what they want."

There is no central Catholic church policy on what can and can't be put on headstones, a spokesperson for the church in England and Wales says. The issue hasn't arisen before, with the small number of Catholic cemeteries making disputes such as this one rare.

Though the Church of England doesn't have centralised rules on what can be put on a headstone, its 42 dioceses each has their own set of churchyard regulations, which include guidance on the type of text permitted. The Diocese of Oxford, for example, says that "inscriptions must be simple, reverent and theologically acceptable; they may include appropriate quotations from the scriptures or literary sources." Nicknames or pet names are allowed, but in inverted commas.

For municipal burial grounds, the Department for Constitutional Affairs has outline guidance for cemetery managers, which covers "informal memorialisation" (such as soft toys placed on graves) but not what can be inscribed on a headstone. And the Local Authorities' Cemeteries Order of 1977 allows Church of England bishops the right to object to an inscription on memorials, but doesn't say on what grounds. The order does not cover non-Church of England cemeteries.

More generally, it seems likely that headstones would come under Public Order Act of 1986, which prohibits hate speech - those which feature racial or ethnic slurs are likely to be removed.

But beyond that the rules remain hazy.

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What happens when airdrops land?

Aid is loaded on to an aircraft

The UK and US have started dropping aid into Mount Sinjar in Iraq. But how effective are airdrops, asks Lucy Townsend.

Parcels including food, water purification cans and solar lanterns have been dropped to thousands of Yazidis fleeing the advance of Islamic State (IS) forces. Packed into crates and parachuted in, airdrops are described as the "least favoured option" for delivering aid.

"Wastage is huge," says Andrew MacLeod, who has coordinated air drops for organisations including the Red Cross and the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

"Airdrops have the highest visibility on TV and the lowest impact on the ground. They are the least favoured option, used only in absolutely extreme circumstances where it is the only option."

Aid is loaded on to an aircraft

Among the difficulties are high winds, which can blow packages off course, violence around the drop zone and damage to the crates as they hit the ground. Packages can also injure people on the ground. The RAF abandoned one planned drop into Mount Sinjar because too many people had gathered in the drop zone.

"After the Pakistan earthquake tents were dropped for people but they bounced down the hills, dropped into the rivers and got washed away," adds MacLeod.

The answer

  • There are no reliable figures on wastage
  • Airdrops are described as the "least effective" method of delivering aid

"In other cases there can be small scale rioting or violence around the site of the airdrop. You also have to ensure that you are not dropping into dangerous ground such as marshland where people may drown trying to collect it. Then there's also things like the high protein biscuits that are often dropped can cause constipation if too many are eaten.

"From a C130 aircraft the drop zone is probably multiple hundreds of metres long. The need for an airdrop has to be so urgent that it counters the high level of wastage."

Former RAF Hercules pilot John Gladston argues that military airdrops are usually much more effective. "Parachute airdrop is a much more reliable method than 'free-drop', where aid is simply pushed out the back of the aircraft. Modern parachute airdrop of secure, well-rigged loads is a safe, reliable and accurate way of delivering large quantities of supplies, particularly humanitarian aid."

Wheat, flour, rice and maize are the foods most commonly distributed by the World Food Programme (WFP). "They tend to be more robust things, but there is always wastage," says Gregory Barrow, from the WFP.

"It is the least effective way of delivering aid, but sometimes is the only option."

Boxes of aid on a lorry

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Would sinking ships hit GDP?

HMS Queen Elizabeth

There are big changes coming to the national accounts next month, writes Anthony Reuben.

I've already written about how illegal drugs and prostitution are going to be included in the calculation of gross domestic product (GDP), which is the measure of all the goods and services produced by an economy.

Another of the changes is to the treatment of "military weapons of destruction and the equipment needed to deliver them".

In the past, government spending on weapons was considered to be just consumption by governments - from next month some of it will count as an investment.

That increased government investment in things like ships, aircraft and tanks will add £3.5bn to GDP for 2009, which is the most recent year for which we have been given figures so far.

The thing is, some of these weapons are very expensive. The recently named HMS Queen Elizabeth aircraft carrier is expected to cost about £6.2bn.

Clearly, we hope this doesn't happen, but if, in some future conflict, it were to be sunk, would that knock 1.6% off that quarter's GDP?

Not necessarily, according to the specialists at the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

Remember, counting weapons as government investments is new stuff to the statisticians - they released a report on how they planned to treat them.

If the ship were to be sold then they would take account of that straight away. But at the moment, the model does not take account of catastrophic losses, so the ship would continue to be written off gradually over its theoretical 20-year lifespan.

But they say that if the loss were really big (like the loss of an aircraft carrier) they might have to adjust the model to take that into account, which would mean there would be a big hit to GDP.

It's an excellent example of how the thinking about GDP is developing to embrace the changes.

And if anyone thinking back to their A-level economics remembers that GDP does not include depreciation, well done - you're right in most cases.

But measuring government output involves taking the sum of its costs, and one of those costs is depreciation. So, at the moment, military assets will be written off over 20 years, however long they actually last.

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How many people infected with ebola die?

An ebola sufferer arrives in Spain

The ebola virus that has killed almost 1,000 people in West Africa this year is fatal for "up to 90%" of those infected, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). But note the words "up to"... What is the normal fatality rate, asks James Fletcher?

The WHO describes ebola as "one of the world's most virulent diseases". It is, according to the organisation's website, "a severe, often fatal illness, with a case fatality rate of up to 90%".

A case fatality rate - or CFR - is a relatively simple measurement. It's the number of people who die from an illness divided by the number of people diagnosed with it. But in the current outbreak, the proportion of infected people dying is far lower than 90%.

"That 90% figure actually comes from one outbreak of ebola which took place in the Congo between 2002 and 2003. It's the highest rate we have ever seen," says Maimuna Majumder, a biostatistician and epidemiologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The answer

  • Between 60% and 65% of all people known to have been infected with ebola have died
  • Different strains of ebola appear to have different fatality rates
  • The number of deaths also depends on the quality of treatment
  • About 54% of those infected in the current outbreak have died

"The cumulative average considering all ebola cases and deaths from 1976 to the present is actually closer to 60-to-65% and the current outbreak has a CFR of about 54% - though it's subject to change as the outbreak goes on."

This figure of 54%, however, is an average taken from several countries. The fatality rate varies from one country to another - in Guinea it's about 73%, whereas in Liberia its 55%, and in Sierra Leone it's 41%.

Why the variation?

The main factors, according to Majumder, are the level of preparedness and the availability and quality of medical care.

Graph showing Ebola deaths since 1976

Another factor - when it comes to the varying CFR from one outbreak to the next - may be the different strains of the disease. Of the five known ebola strains, the "Zaire" and "Sudan" strains have been responsible for most deaths. The Zaire strain's average fatality rate is 79% and the Sudan strain's is 54% - research on the current outbreak, in Guinea, suggests that it is caused by the Zaire strain.

More or Less: Behind the stats

Listen to More or Less on BBC Radio 4 and the World Service, or download the free podcast

The CFR doesn't tell you how contagious a disease is. Ebola, transmitted through contact with bodily fluids, is much less contagious than airborne diseases such as influenza or measles. What it can do is indicate how serious the disease is, for those patients infected with it. But as we've seen, this varies.

"When you have large ranges of CFR like you do with ebola, it isn't really appropriate to give one extreme or the other," Majumder says. "I think if we were to use a CFR for ebola we really ought to give the case average since initial emergence of the disease in 1976 - and that is significantly less than the 90% estimate that we hear a lot of in the media."

And which we also hear about on the WHO website.

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The great balloon riot of 1864

Victorian balloon Just for historical accuracy, this is not a hot air balloon - hydrogen was initially used in balloons

Europe's largest balloon festival is staged this weekend in Bristol. We trust there'll be no repeat of the scenes in Leicester in 1864. Author Jeremy Clay tells the little-known tale of Britain's balloon riot.

The distinguished gentleman ran for his life - his clothes ripped, his hair dishevelled, a furious mob hot on his heels, baying for blood.

Behind him lay the ripped-up, burning remnants of his livelihood. What with one thing and another, his balloon display hadn't gone quite as well as he'd expected.

It had all started so promisingly, too. A crowd of about 50,000 people had gathered on the racecourse in Leicester that summer's day in 1864 to see the feted aeronaut take to the skies.

Henry Coxwell wasn't just an aviation pioneer, he was something of a celebrity too. Two years earlier, accompanied by the meteorological scientist Dr James Glaisher, he'd soared up to the stratosphere, curious as to what might happen next.

What actually happened next was Dr Glaisher went temporarily blind, then passed out. Coxwell, who had lost all sensation in his gloveless hands, could well have followed suit, had he not saved them both by opening the valve-cord with his teeth.

James Glaisher and English aviator Henry Tracey Coxwell in the basket of a hot air balloon James Glaisher and Henry Tracey Coxwell in the basket of a gas balloon in 1862

Such shivering dash and derring-do made him a hero, so when he agreed to appear with his fancy new balloon Britannia at the Order of Forester's fete in Leicester, admirers arrived from as far and wide to see him soar into the skies.

But as the punters gathered, and Coxwell made his pre-flight preparations, there was trouble afoot.

"Early in the afternoon, a gentleman, reported to be a professional man, gave it out that the balloon then present was not my largest and newest balloon but a small one," Coxwell would later write to the Times.

"This was a cruel libel," he added, but the rumour spread all the same. "This Coxwell," they muttered, darkly, "he's taking us for mugs."

As the mood soured, the masses pressed in. With barely any police on duty to control the huge throng, "a perfect sea of clamouring spectators" broke into his enclosure, "everybody demanding an instantaneous ascent".

If he expected better behaviour from the well-to-do Leicester folk who were to accompany him into the air, he was sorely disappointed.

Victorian Strangeness

Pigeons on racetrack

A series of bizarre episodes culled from 19th Century newspapers by Jeremy Clay.

"Those who had paid their money and obtained tickets pounced into the basket in such a rude and unceremonious manner that all operations were stopped and the passengers themselves were preventing their own departure," wrote Coxwell.

"One person seated in my car was a disgrace to his town, as by his gestures and foul language he excited the mob and induced the belief that there existed on my part a disinclination to ascend.

"The pressure of the mob was now so great that my car was damaged, the network broken in several places owing to persons hanging on to the lower meshes, and a bottle was thrown into the balloon."

Enough was enough, thought Coxwell. He appealed to the nobler instincts of the crowd and warned that unless they eased back, he would be forced to let out the gas.

In return, they shouted abuse. "I forthwith executed my threat," he said.

"To the astonishment of everyone," reported the Leicester Chronicle, "the canvas which a few moments before appeared, every inch of it, to be well filled with gas, began to hang loose, and flapped in the wind so much it was soon apparent that the gas was fast escaping.

"All doubt on this point was soon dispelled, more especially in regard to those people immediately surrounding it (for the stench became intolerable) and every moment the size of the balloon became less and less; the wind filling its loose folds, and causing it to pitch and toss about considerably, and threatening every moment to fall on the heads of those who stood near it.

"Finally, the whole structure fell into a shapeless mass on the ground."

And that's when it really kicked off.

"The crowd who stood around immediately seized upon the net-work and material of the balloon and tore it into a hundred shreds," said the paper. "The car was next - set fire to and burnt to ashes."

Balloon riot

Insp Haynes and Sgt Chapman, stalwarts of the Leicester force, battled manfully with the rabble, but they were horribly outnumbered.

"It was brave but hard work," Coxwell wrote, "for nothing short of the destruction of my balloon, and indeed an attempt on my own life, appeared a sufficient sacrifice.

"While the work of demolition was proceeding, Sergeant Chapman led me away amid yelling and derision. My clothes were soon torn and then the cry was raised, 'Rip him up,' 'knock him on the head', 'finish him'."

Dashing for safety, Coxwell found sanctuary in the nearby home on the Town Clerk. Back on the racecourse, a man who had been taken for the aviator was attacked, and his coat pulled to bits. The more entrepreneurially-minded, meanwhile, began selling remaining pieces of the balloon as souvenirs.

"I never witnessed such barbarous ignorance, baseness and injustice in my life," a letter-writer complained to the Chronicle after returning from the ruckus. "I feared Mr Coxwell would be killed. I was knocked down thrice myself simply for endeavouring to defend him."

The correspondent added a PS: "They have burnt the balloon and are parading its remains through the town, having just passed my window."

Condemnation of the brouhaha swiftly followed. A report of The London Review of Politics, Society, Literature, Art and Science said: "No man who commits himself to the science of ballooning can tell where or amongst what people it will carry him, as Mr Coxwell has just discovered.

"It set him down on Monday amongst a horde of savages as fierce and untamed as South Sea Islanders and differing very little from them except in their habitat, which was at Leicester.

"It is humiliating to think that after all the civilising influences which have been exerted upon them, so much of the savage should still linger in the blood of our working classes."

In Leicester, the blame for the uproar was put on out-of-towners. Excursionists. From Nottingham, perhaps. But to no avail. The town was stigmatised.

And so, a short-lived nickname was born. People from Leicester are known as Leicestrians. For reasons that needn't trouble us here, you might also hear them called Chisits. But for a while in 1864, thanks to Punch magazine, they had a new title - Balloonatics.

Discover more about what life was like in Victorian times and 10 truly bizarre Victorian deaths

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Penny Illustrated Paper image provided by The British Library Board.

Weekendish: Best longer reads from the week


A collection of some of the best reads from the BBC News website this week, with an injection of your comments.

Glenn Foster was an American engineer who worked in Afghanistan in the 1950s. He was also an amateur cameraman. Throughout his seven-year stay, his 16mm camera was a constant companion. Foster captured Afghan life and landscapes, engineering projects and members of the expat community enjoying themselves (above). In essence, he captured the country in a hopeful moment of its history. He all but gave up making films when he returned to the US, and it wasn't until he had died that his son discovered the extraordinary legacy - hours and hours of footage from a country's history that is all but forgotten. Monica Whitlock tells the story in this long-form essay that includes the original footage. James Hallwood tweets: "History isn't 'over' - things don't inevitably progress. Sad to see Helmand's golden age on BBC - who'd have guessed?" @jimactually adds: "A great piece of history, when technology was the answer to changing societies." Ahmed Sarfaraz ‏tweets: "Quite a bit of sadness in this. One likes to #hope the #Golden #days of #Helmand are yet to come." But Brian Mc thinks there was something missing: "How about reporting that the US dragged Afghanistan back into the stone age by supporting the Mujahadeen in the 80s at a time when Afghanistan was modernising and did nothing for the 6 years the Taliban were in power."

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Last gallows

Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans, the last to be hanged

Fifty years ago, petty criminals Gwynne Evans and Peter Allen were sentenced to death for killing a man in a bungled burglary. They were the last people to be executed in the UK. It was a time in which the death penalty was delivered with astonishing speed, writes Marek Pruszewicz. The delay between conviction and execution a matter of weeks - the delay between the hangmen entering the cell and death a matter of seconds. Prof David Wilson ‏tweets: "BBC article… seems to imply speed of execution equals humanity. It doesn't. Capital punishment is always barbaric." Devon and Cornwall's Police's Learning & Development Dept adds: "Astonishing that UK still had the death penalty only 50 years ago; hanging people 2 years before World Cup victory!"

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Betrayed at high altitude
Amir Mehdi (in 1994) Amir Mehdi in later years, wearing medals awarded by the Italian government

Amir Mehdi wanted to be the first Pakistani to scale the country's highest peak, K2, and as one of the strongest climbers in the first team to conquer the summit, 60 years ago, he nearly did. Instead he was betrayed by his Italian companions, left to spend a night on the ice without shelter, and was lucky to survive. Shahzeb Jillani travels to the remote Hunza Valley to find out more about the pioneering high-altitude porter. Ross Boardman ‏tweets: "It is amazing that every time a lie is spun to save an ego, the truth still comes out." Paul B. Kennedy tweets: "Ah, nothing like the cutthroat world of high altitude climbing. Ayn Rand would be proud."

Amir Mehdi: Left out to freeze on K2 and forgotten

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Keeping it unreal
Sauce Money

It's an art that is meant to come from the heart. So what happens when a hip hop hit turns out not to have been written by the person who performed it, but by a ghostwriter? Sarah Thompson spoke to Grandmaster Caz and Sauce Money - two rappers who have reached huge audiences with their authentic story-telling, and made other men famous.

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We want you as a new recruit
Original cover and poster

For many, it's the defining image of World War One - the imperious, pointing finger of Lord Kitchener exhorting young men to join the armed forces and fight. But the poster which is so often associated with war recruitment was printed only 10,000 times during the war, making up only a small proportion of the 5.7 million official war posters. So why is it so famous now? Adam Eley looks at its legacy.

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Solomon hero
United States Navy identification card for John F. Kennedy. Kennedy's United States Navy identification card

One of the two Solomon Islanders who carried a distress message carved on a coconut to help save a young John F Kennedy during World War Two has died. Rob Brown tells the incredible story of how Eroni Kumana came across JFK and his men in his canoe after their patrol boat was sunk by a Japanese destroyer. The survivors had spent a few hours on or around the wreck of the wooden boat, then swam three-and-a-half miles to the nearest island. Accounts from the time say Kennedy towed one of his injured crewmates along, swimming with the strap of his lifejacket between his teeth.

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Here are some things we've enjoyed this week from elsewhere around the web:

The story of the world's smallest skyscraper - City Metric

The IBM supercomputer which could replace the loudmouth in your business meetings - Quartz

How a little bit of pessimism goes a long way - Wall Street Journal

The story of the Mormon who embraced her transgender daughter - Atlantic

Can you bribe people thin? - Telegraph expat

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10 things we didn't know last week


1. Tortoises can run as fast as 1mph (1.6km/h).

Find out more

2. Neanderthals ate barbecue-roasted pigeon.

Find out more (The Guardian)

3. Ant colonies have personalities.

Find out more

4. The Indian record for staff absenteeism is thought to have been set by a biology teacher who did not turn up for work for 23 years.

Find out more

5. In Oklahoma, the average marijuana joint costs the same as 2.41 bottles of Bud Light.

Find out more (Washington Post)

6. There is a mathematical formula for happiness.

Find out more (QZ)

7. Eels are adversely affected by noise pollution.

Find out more (Smithsonian)

8. Mesa, Arizona, is the most conservative large city in the United States.

Find out more (The Economist)

9. The average astronaut on orbiting space shuttles gets less than six hours sleep a night.

Find out more (Daily Telegraph)

10. Grizzly bears' bodies mimic the symptoms of type two diabetes during hibernation.

Find out more (New Scientist)

Seen a thing? Tell the Magazine on Twitter using the hashtag #thingIdidntknowlastweek

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Go Figure: The week in numbers

Look back at the week in numbers with our Go Figure images, which are posted daily on social media.

Atheists graphic

Monday: The stigma of being an atheist in the US

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Panama graphic

Tuesday: Why so many ship-owners find Panama's flag convenient

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Rosetta and Earth graphic

Wednesday part one: Europe's Rosetta probe goes into orbit around comet 67P

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Rosetta spacecraft graphic

Wednesday part two: The past, the present, and the challenges ahead for Europe's comet chaser

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Islamic State graphic

Thursday: The rise of the Islamic State

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Yazidi graphic

Friday: The rise of the Islamic State

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The return of the beer cocktail

Beer cocktail Do you want a flake with that?

Beer cocktails are increasing in popularity. Strange as it sounds, it's a drinking tradition that dates back to Victorian times, writes Tammy Thueringer.

Imagine a drink made of vodka, Aperol, sherry, watermelon and clover syrup, coriander, lemon and topped off with amber ale. Yes, as in beer.

If that concoction sounds appealing, you are in luck. Beer cocktails have been popping up at bars and restaurants on both sides of the Atlantic for the past few years.

There have always been beer mixtures. In the US, the Boilermaker is a shot glass of whiskey dropped into a beer. In the UK, Snakebite (with or without blackcurrant) is a mix of cider and lager and the stuff of teenage mythology. In France, beer with Picon is a classic drink. And Black Velvet - champagne and stout - has always been popular.

But the current trend is to use beer as an ingredient in an actual multiple-ingredient cocktail - typically floated on the top or as a base. Chris Hutchinson, manager of Underdog bar in London, has more than a dozen on the menu and uses ingredients like "libertine" syrup and blackberry foam. "Our drinks are classic cocktails with a craft beer twist and then we add in other ingredients that blend well," says Hutchinson. "London is saturated with speakeasies and places offering craft beer - we wanted to provide a different option."

The "new" trend actually has its roots in the 19th Century and beyond. "From at least the medieval era in Britain, drinkers were knocking back concoctions such as warm ale, brandy and egg," says Jane Peyton, an alcohol historian and Britain's Beer Sommelier of the Year. Popularity peaked during the Victorian era, when they had names like Huckle My Buff, Humpty Dumpty, and Six and Tips, and were commonly mixed beer with brandy or gin.

Their popularity waned during a period when many Victorians switched from beer to tea. "When the tax on tea was reduced, the amount of alcohol consumed went down dramatically," Peyton says. "Once people could afford tea, they started mixing that with water which at the time was dirty and often considered unsafe to drink." When beer recovered its popularity, for some reason mixtures didn't come back in the same way, says Peyton. But the craft beer craze has proved key.

And now, the hoppy cocktails are back with a twist.

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Caption Challenge: Bear grins

A cosplayer takes a rest during the Osu Cosplay Parade

Winning entries in the Caption Competition.

The Caption Challenge is now closed.

This week a cosplayer takes a rest during the Osu Cosplay Parade in Nagoya, Japan.

Thanks to all who entered. The prize of a small amount of kudos to the following:

6. Michael Horn:

Even in his lowest moments, due to the construction of his face, Winnie couldn't help but smile.

5. Dry Boak:

"I completely misunderstood. Come bare they said. I didn't know it was a naturist convention."

4. IABP:

"You can take my picture but I own the copyright."

3. Comeinski:

"Hi! Honey? I'm homeless..."

2. Judith Wiseman:

Please look after this composite fancy dress wearer.

1. Paul Godley:

"...and they said I would be a necessity of life *sniff*"

PDF download Full rules can be seen here[16KB]

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When adult actors play teenagers

The Inbetweeners

Following the release of their second movie, the Inbetweeners have said this will be their last outing as a group. With a combined age of 114, could they have continued playing teenagers any longer, asks Harry Low.

There are plenty of examples of actors portraying characters much younger than themselves.

Olivia Newton-John played teenager Sandy Olsson in Grease at the age of 29, while Stockard Channing played Rizzo despite being 33. Tobey Maguire, aka Peter Parker, was a mid-20s Spider-Man. Charisma Carpenter was 27 when she was Cordelia in Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

Blake Harrison, 29, who plays Neil in the Inbetweeners, has explained why it is no longer feasible for one of the most popular sitcoms of recent years to continue.

"The humour comes from their naivety and ignorance towards the world and as soon as you start placing that naivety and ignorance into people in their 20s and 30s, it becomes a bit more offensive and less funny."

Perhaps one of the most famous examples of "acting down" is Sally Thomsett, who played Phyllis in the Railway Children. She was 20 when her character was just 11. "That's a large age gap because a lot happens between 11 and 20, you've got all your teenage years," she says. "It was easy for me because I knew what it was like to be 11 and I'd always played younger than myself. With those period clothes we wore, it didn't show any shape at all so it was perfect."

Sally Thomsett (centre) Sally Thomsett (centre) was 20 but playing an 11-year-old

Thomsett says there were "pros and cons" but was sworn to secrecy on her true age for years. She was also prevented from drinking, smoking and driving during the period of filming.

Actor and screenwriter Alison Rose, says it is uncommon for directors to cast somebody in a younger role. "There is such a huge pool to choose from. Why would you choose somebody older? Sometimes you could change a character's age to suit the performer.

"You don't want the audience thinking they are not going to believe this. It's to do with credibility."

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The four-year spread of bubble tea

A cup of bubble tea

Four years ago bubble tea was relatively unknown in the UK, but the drinks are now ubiquitous on High Streets, from cities to small towns, writes Lucy Townsend.

It is often brightly coloured, sometimes served with milk, with a layer of jelly-like globules - tapioca balls - that settle at the bottom of the cup. Drunk through an extra thick straw with a spoon-shaped tip, it is a mouthful of tea and chewiness - both a drink and a snack,

Chorley in Lancashire got its first bubble tea bar in July. Huddersfield has Bubble n Shake, there is a mobile bubble tea van in Bristol, and it can be found in cities from Glasgow to Portsmouth.

"It's chewy and odd," says restaurant critic Marina O'Loughlin. "It's slippery and strange, but weirdly more-ish. I love the way it comes with a flat straw so I can scoop out the balls and they plop into my mouth."

Bubble tea hails from 1980s Taiwan. It was an evolution from the country's street tea vendors who began experimenting with fruity flavours and colour to entice customers. The "bubble" actually refers to the froth on top of the drink which comes after it is violently shaken - some cafes use a machine especially for shaking.

A bowl of tapioca balls

How the tapioca balls arrived in the drink is a matter of debate - though the most common story is that product development manager Lin Hsiu Hui was sitting in a staff meeting and poured the tapioca from her pudding into her Assam iced tea. The result was considered delicious.

Assad Khan, a former investment banker, opened the UK's first bubble tea shop in Soho, London, in 2011. He came across the drink in a "small hole-in-the-wall cafe in New York", and now has his own Bubbleology cafes across Europe and the Middle East.

"It's an absolute phenomenon," he says. "It is something that at first was a bit difficult to grasp, it's a different taste experience, but I never had any doubt that it would work. "My favourite flavour is taro milk, which is a root vegetable, lilac in colour."

While growing in the UK, it is even more popular in Germany, according to market research firm Mintel. Even McDonald's has started serving it.

A bubble tea drinking competition in Germany A bubble tea drinking competition in Germany

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