Got a TV Licence?

You need one to watch live TV on any channel or device, and BBC programmes on iPlayer. It’s the law.

Find out more
I don’t have a TV Licence.


  1. Today's top headlines:

Live Reporting

By Lucy Fleming and Farouk Chothia

All times stated are UK

Get involved

Scroll down for Wednesday's stories

We'll be back tomorrow

That's all from the BBC Africa Live page today. Keep up-to-date with what's happening across the continent by listening to the Africa Today podcast or checking the BBC News website

A reminder of today's wise words:

Don't teach the tiger cub to eat meat."

Sent by Joseph Dumbula, Blantyre, Malawi.

Click here to send us your African proverbs.

And we leave you with this photo of Ian Crane of the US competing at the World Surf League in Ballito in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province: 

A handout picture provided by the World Surf League (WSL) of Ian Crane of the US in action at the Ballito Pro surfing event as part of the WSL in Ballito, South Africa, 29 June 2016

Get Involved: Cameroon compensation 'insulting'

BBC Facebook Africa readers have been outraged by an AP report that the US government has given a Cameroonian family $1,700 (£1,260) in cash as compensation for their child being killed in April by a vehicle in top US diplomat Samantha Power's motorcade.

What a mockery. What is $1,700 compared to the life of the boy and the family's loss? If it were to be an American child is that what you would've given as your so-called compensation?"

McEden Wangang

It's a disgrace. Is this how we value human life, $1,700. Seriously, the horrors continue and it's not only the bombings. Daily we tread on humans around us. I am truly embarrassed."

Tracey Edwards

The amount is too small to be called 'compensation'. lt's an insult to the family, actually."

Kwame Awuah Kokodurufo Nyame

$1,700 should be BURIAL EXPENSES, NOT COMPENSATION!! No amount of money is equivalent to human life!"

Martin 'Bigbro' Baluku

AP says the US, Cameroonian government, the UN and aid agencies have paid a total package of $10,000 to include improving the boy's community (see earlier post).

Diamonds aren't forever

The second biggest ever rough diamond was discovered in Botswana

The second biggest rough diamond ever found - it's the size of a tennis ball - is on sale today at Sotheby's auction house in London.

It's one of three big diamonds found recently after a break of more than a century. 

The BBC's Clare Spencer asks "Why have so many huge diamonds been found recently?"

Puntland radio station 'closed by soldiers'

Heavily armed soldiers last week closed Radio Daljir, the leading news radio station in the Puntland region of Somalia, reports the Media Development Investment Fund.

It says the closure, which has caused international alarm, was in response to the station broadcasting an interview with a rebel leader.  

South Africa to face Brazilian football star Neyma

The South African men's football team have a tough time ahead in Rio as Brazil names one of the world's top players to their Olympic squad, tweets our sports reporter: 

View more on twitter

Olympic men's football teams are made up of players under the age of 23 - but each country is allowed to include three older team members.

Cameroon defender Nicolas Nkoulou joins Lyon

Nicolas Nkoulou (C) posing with a Lyon club shirt
Olympique Lyonnais
Nkoulou says he chose the number 3 as he is the youngest of three children in his family

Cameroon defender Nicolas Nkoulou has signed a four-year deal with French Ligue 1 side Lyon.

The 26-year-old signed after his contract with Lyon's French rivals Marseille came to an end at the end of the season.

Read the BBC Sport story for more.

Angola verdict welcomed

A ruling by the Supreme Court in  Angola to place 17 jailed activists, including prominent rapper Luaty Beirao, under house arrest has been welcomed by their lawyer Francisco Miguel Michel, the AFP news agency reports. 

Describing himself as "very happy", he said his clients had committed "no crime". 

The lawyer added:  

"Any court concerned with the application of justice would have ruled the same."

The 17 were given jail terms of between two and eight years in March for plotting a rebellion against long-serving ruler Jose Eduardo dos Santos  

See earlier post for more details

Angolan activist Luaty Beirao pictured in 2012
Rapper Luaty Beirao, pictured here in 2012, has been a vocal critic of the government

Africa Express playing with the Orchestra of Syrian Musicians

BBC Africa’s Manuel Toledo is in Denmark for the Roskilde Festival and snapped Malian ngoni player Bassekou Kouyate, British musician Damon Albarn and Senegalese kora player Seckou Keita during a rehearsal today:

From left to right: Malian ngoni player Bassekou Kouyate, British musician Damon Albarn and Senegalese kora player Seckou Keita

They will be performing later today with the Orchestra of Syrian Musicians in a concert presented by Africa Express, which includes leading musicians from Africa, Europe and other parts of the world.

Move to appeal against conviction of SA impersonator

Pumza Fihlani

BBC News, Johannesburg

Sibusiso Gcabashe
The impesonator received a hero's welcome from fans who believed was a deceased musician

The family of renowned South African musician Khulekani "Mgqumeni" Khumalo appear to be split over the identity of the man who impersonated him. 

While his wives believed Sibusiso Gcabashe was their husband returned from the dead, a former lover was not convinced.

A court sentenced him to 28 years in prison, including kidnapping and raping an 18-year-old woman.  

Some of Khumalo's family have said they will appeal against the conviction in the High Court in Pietermaritzburg city because they still believe Gcabashe is their son, according to local reports.

The man apparently sang one of Khumalo's songs as he was being escorted to the police cells and said he would compose music in prison, according to the national broadcaster, SABC.

Khumalo was a popular Zulu folk musician who died in 2009. 

See earlier post for more details

UN to send 'special forces to Mali'

An Ivory Coast Republican Forces (FRCI) soldier of the logistics battalion, part of the African-led International Support Mission to Mali (AFISMA - MISMA in French), leaves Ivory Coast's army headquarters in Abidjan on 2 May 2013 for Bamako, Mali
International forces in Mali are under serious threat

The UN Security Council has unanimously approved a French-drafted resolution to deploy an extra 2,500 extra troops and police to Mali to fight militant Islamists. 

French Ambassador Francois Delattre said the UN force was "confronted with a resilient terrorist threat". 

The UN currently has 12,000 soldiers and police in Mali.

A total of 27 of its troops have been killed so far this year, making it the deadliest UN mission in the world. 

The resolution gave the force a "more robust mandate" and the extra troops would include "highly-specialised European contingents in terms of special forces, in terms of intelligence", Mr Delattre said. 

Read: World's most dangerous peacekeeping mission

Was Kenyan 'devoured by hyenas' already dead?

Ruth Nesoba

BBC Africa, Nairobi

Hyenas in South Africa
Hyenas are nocturnal animals

Residents did not hear screams or shouts when hyenas ate most of a 45-year-old man in Kenya's Ongata Rongai town, near the Nairobi National Park, the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) says.

This raises the possibility that the man was killed elsewhere and his body dumped at the spot where it was found or the man died of alcohol poisoning before the attack on Monday night, said KWS spokesman Ngugi Gecaga.

Police took the body to a mortuary yesterday morning and a post-mortem would establish the exact cause of death, he added.

Mr Gecaga confirmed that hyenas -  not lions, as reported by a local newspaper - fed on the man's body.

His family has been informed of his death and is said to be extremely distressed.  

See earlier post for more details

Abducted Nigerian singer freed

Isa Sanusi

BBC Africa, Nigeria

Popular Nigerian singer Ado Halliru Daukaka, who went missing on Friday, has been found.

He has just spoken to me from a hospital in Lafiya Lamorde, where he is recovering from his kidnap ordeal.

It is about 120km (75 miles) from the north-eastern city of Yola where he was abducted.

He said the kidnappers targeted him because he had released a song critical of politicians (see earlier post).

Mr Daukaka said they tricked him into a car on Friday morning by asking him to record a song for them.

They drove out of the city and then played his new release, and began asking him why he had recorded a track that mocked politicians for failing to keep their promises:

They threatened me and said they would take my life and repeatedly asked why I was criticising politicians and warned me to stop or lose my life."

He said they kept him without food for two days during his captivity.

This morning the kidnappers blindfolded him and let him go in a forest, Mr Daukaka said.

Police say the singer was found unconscious and emaciated.

Somalia gets first development plan in 30 years

Somalia's government has publicly launched the initial draft of a national development plan, the first in three decades. 

The country descended into civil war in 1991.

The planning minister, who used to a BBC reporter, has tweeted a photo that starkly sums up the passage of time.

View more on twitter

For the authorities, it is a strong sign that progress is being made to rebuild the country. 

However, much of the south of the country - especially rural areas - is still held by Islamist militant group al-Shabab.

The development plan notes that as 70% of Somalia’s 12.3 million people are under the age of 30, its aim is to help the young:

We believe that the youth bulge in our country poses great deal of risks, but it can also become an advantage to our economy and the vibrancy of our society

Planning Minister Abdi Aynte

Angola book club activists 'to be moved to house arrest'

Some of the 17 Angolan activists in court
Beirao, seen here in court in glasses, has been calling for a fairer distribution of the Angola's oil wealth

An Angolan court has ordered the conditional release of 17 activists, including well-known rapper Luaty Beirao, the AFP news agency reports.

It comes three months after they were jailed for plotting a rebellion against 73-year-old President Jose Eduardo dos Santos.

"Release warrants under house arrest were issued on behalf of 17 applicants to be executed from the present day," AFP quotes the Supreme Court in Luanda as saying. 

The independent Angolan news site Rede Angola says it spoke to Beirao's wife, Monica Almeida, who said she had received a message on her phone this morning saying it was important for her to go to Sao Paulo Prison Hospital today.  

It was reported last week that the rapper, also known by his stage name Ikonoklasta, was on hunger strike and had been moved to the prison hospital.

The 17 were arrested a year ago after discussing a book about non-violent resistance at their book club.  

They were given jail terms of between two and eight years in March.

Kenya 'repels al-Shabab attack'

Ferdinand Omondi

BBC Africa, Mombasa

Kenyan troops repelled an al-Shabab attack in Lamu county, killing four militants and seizing weapons after a shootout this morning, a Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) statement said.

“The troops had been in hot pursuit of the al-Shabab terrorists after they conducted a probing attack on a KDF camp in Mangai, Lamu county, yesterday evening.”

KDF statement

A rocket-propelled grenade, two hand grenades, four AK47s and an unused improvised explosive device (IED) were recovered.

The attempted attack took place near Baure, a remote village 60km (37 miles) north of the coastal town of Lamu.

This is not far from Boni forest where the army is conducting an operation to flush out al-Shabab, which is based in neighbouring Somalia.

The authorities believe al-Shabab cells are in the vast forest which extends from Lamu into Somalia.

The militants are believed to have launched several attacks on Lamu and neighbouring areas from the forest.

Read: Why al-Shabab targets Kenya

Charred vehicles in Mpeketoni, Kenya, after an al-Shabab attack in 2014
Lamu county has been hit by several terror attacks

Human image of a plane - Guinness World Record breaker?

There's been been great fanfare in Addis Ababa after Ethiopian Airlines took delivery of a new Airbus plane  this morning (see earlier post). Staff marked the occasion by breaking a Guinness World Record, according to a tweet from this government-affiliated broadcaster:

View more on twitter

BreakingUN 'to strengthen Mali peace mission'

The UN Security Council has unanimously backed a measure to strengthen the Mali peace mission, the AFP news agency is reporting

Appeal to stop illegal fishing in West Africa

James Copnall

Africa editor, BBC World Service

A man shows a fish as fishermen from Sierra Leone pull a net from the water on September 26, 2009 on a beach in Freetown.
Fishing is the livelihood of many communities in West Africa

A leading think-tank says West African nations should crack down on illegal foreign fishing off their coastlines, and build up their fishing industries, to protect the livelihoods of millions of people. 

In a report, the Overseas Development Institute also says selling fishing rights to foreign companies is often a mistake.

It believes that West African countries could create more than 300,000 jobs by awarding more fishing and exporting rights to national fleets.  

It is estimated that the region loses at least $1.3bn (£906m) a year from illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.  

Gay men 'targeted in Ivory Coast'

People visit a memorial down the road from the Pulse nightclub on June 19, 2016 in Orlando, Florida.
The gunman killed 49 people in a suspected homophobic attack in Orlando

Gay men in Ivory Coast say they have been assaulted and forced to leave their homes after the US embassy in Abidjan published a photo of them signing a condolence book for victims of the mass shooting at a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida, the Associated Press reports. 

The photo, published on the embassy's website and shared on social media, showed six men with the caption "LGBTI community signing the condolence book".

AP spoke to four of them who requested anonymity. Two said they had been attacked by mobs shouting homophobic remarks while another two said family pressure had forced them to leave their homes. 

Embassy spokeswoman Elizabeth Ategou said the embassy "deeply regrets that any individuals were attacked", AP reports.

She added the men were notified that their photos would be taken and published -  something the men deny, the agency says. 

SA musician's imposter jailed

Nomsa Maseko

BBC Africa, Johannesburg

Khulekani Khumalo
Daily Sun
Khumalo was a popular musician who died in 2009

A man who impersonated dead South African musician Khulekani Mgqumeni Khumalo has been sentenced to 28 years and three months in prison. 

Sibusiso Gcabashe made headlines in 2012 when thousands of music fans flocked to his home in KwaZulu Natal province, to see the man who said he was the dead idol. 

Gcabashe, who still insists he is the famous Zulu folk musician, was found guilty of rape, assault, kidnapping and attempting to escape from custody. 

The rape charges emanate from the accused having sex with the late musician’s widows under false pretences.  

The 29-year-old claimed he was the musician who died in 2009 and he had turned into a zombie after rising from the dead. 

He also told police he was held captive in a cave, forced to sing and eat mud to stay alive.

Sentencing him at the High Court in Pietermaritzburg city, the judge said he did not show any remorse during the trial. 

Gcabashe, however, is expected to appeal his sentence.

Istanbul attack: Somali mother’s terrifying search for daughter

Samira Mohamed Abdi and her father
Samira Mohamed Abdi
Samira Mohamed Abdi was travelling with her father to Mogadishu from Sweden

Samira Mohamed Abdi was in transit in Turkey with her family when three suicide bombers attacked Istanbul's main airport, killing 41 people and injuring more than 230 others.

She told the BBC Somali service that in the rush to hide after the first explosion, her 13-year-old daughter went missing:

We could see the explosion - it was just in front of us. All of a sudden, we saw the security people running up and down and shouting. We all went into hiding in the cafe's store room – about 20 people in a small room. We locked ourselves in as we heard the gunshots, then we realised one of us was missing. It was my saddest moment. I couldn’t locate my daughter."

The girl’s grandfather then rushed out to find her:

He went out while all people were lying on the floor and the gunfire was continuing. He was calling her by her name, ‘Aisha, Aisha! Where are you?’ He found shoes on the floor but they were not hers.”

He couldn’t see her – but 20 minutes later, Samira received a call:

Fortunately, she was hiding somewhere else and she asked a Russian guy to call, and then there was the second explosion.”

She said it took Aisha time to find someone who spoke English to help her, so she could get in touch.  

See earlier post on how South Africans were caught up in the attack

'Hyenas eat' Kenyan man

Ruth Nesoba

BBC Africa, Nairobi

Hyena (South Africa)
Hyenas are scavengers

Hyenas are suspected to have killed a man and eaten most of his body in Kenya, a local chief has said. 

This was the second time such a death had been reported at almost the same spot in Ongata Rongai town, Chief Vincent Leipa said in a message to a neighbourhood Whatsapp group.

The attack took place on Monday night as the man was walking home in the town, which is near the Nairobi National Park.  

However, the local Business Today newspaper reported that a pride of lions ate most of the man. 

Police took away his body yesterday morning, it says. 

Admiring diamonds in Botswana

Kenya's president has just wrapped up a visit to diamond-rich Botswana, where his tweets show he had an opportunity to eye a magnificent gem for himself:

View more on twitter
View more on twitter

Botswana is the world's biggest producer of diamonds and the trade has transformed it into a middle-income nation.  

Later today the largest diamond to be discovered in Botswana and the biggest find in more than a century is to be auctioned in Sotheby's in London.

US 'compensates killed Cameroonian boy'

Samantha Power visited a camp after the crash for those made homeless by Boko Haram
Samantha Power's convoy was speeding when it hit the boy

The US government has given a Cameroonian family one million CFA francs ($1,700; £1,260) in cash as compensation for their child being killed in April by a vehicle in top US diplomat Samantha Power's motorcade, the Associated Press news agency reports. 

A further five million francs was contributed by Cameroon's government, aid agencies and the UN, which also had officials in the convoy, to bring the cash payout to more than $10,000, AP adds.

It quotes US State Department spokesman James Loree as saying it was a "compensation package commensurate with local custom, as well as the needs of the family and village" in Cameroon's Far North province where seven-year-old Birwe Toussem was killed.

Mr Loree added: 

This package included a potable water well in the boy's community that will serve as a lasting memory and some monetary, food, and other support."

AP says this includes two cows, hundreds of kilograms of flour, onions, rice, salt and sugar; and cartons of soap and oil. 

Ms Power, the US ambassador to the UN, was in Cameroon to show support for the campaign against militant Islamist group Boko Haram when the accident happened.  

Ms Power's motorcade was moving at a fast speed when the sixth vehicle in it hit the boy after he darted on to the two-lane highway near the small city of Mokolo.

Birwe was treated at the scene, but died soon afterwards. 

Want to click like a Khoisan?

The Khoisan are South Africa's oldest inhabitants though across the region they have often found themselves marginalised and dispossessed.

But in South Africa's Northern Cape province a small group of San, or Bushmen as they are sometimes called, are trying to keep their history, traditions and languages alive.

The BBC's Christian Parkinson spent the day with one of the group to learn more about their way of life. Watch his video and learn some words in their language, which is characterised by clicking sounds:

A guide to Khoisan culture and language

Olympic sevens rugby: Kenya to face Word Cup winners

Kenya's victorious sevens rugby team arriving in Nairobi in April 2016
Kenya's sevens rugby team made history in April

The Kenyan men’s sevens rugby team is to face World Cup winners New Zealand at the Olympics in Rio.

The draw put them in Pool C along with Great Britain and Japan.

In April, the Kenyans shocked Fiji by beating them to claim their first World Series title in Singapore.

South Africa was drawn in Pool B to face Australia, France and Spain in Brazil.

The only African team to make it for the women’s competition is Kenya, who are to face New Zealand, France and Spain.

It is the first time the sport is being played at the Olympics.

Read the BBC Sport story to see all the pool draws

South Sudan elelphants 'invade' Uganda

Elephants are pictured in Addo National Park on February 9, 2013 in Addo, South Africa.

Elephants from South Sudan's Nimule National Park have been crossing into northern Uganda, destroying gardens of maize, cassava, potatoes and cotton, the private Daily Monitor newspaper reports.

Maurice Vuzi, the Dufile sub-county chairman, said the elephants destroyed more than 35 acres of crops on Monday.

He added: 

We are not sure of our fate next season because every harvesting season, elephants destroy our crops, but this time they are coming in large numbers.

There are no control measures in place. That is why they roam freely from South Sudan to Uganda looking for food."

Farmer Alice Drajedio told the Daily Monitor that this was causing a food crisis for villagers:

We spend sleepless nights looking for ways of survival by planting crops but now how can we eradicate poverty in our area when elephants keep on destroying the crops in the gardens?”

'Big bird' lands at Addis Ababa airport

The BBC’s Emmanuel Igunza snapped this “big bird” landing in Ethiopia's capital, Addis Ababa, this morning:

Ethiopian Airlines' Airbus A350 XWB

It is an Airbus A350 XWB – and belongs to Ethiopian Airlines, which has become the first African carrier to acquire the model.

It arrived from Toulouse in France where it was assembled.

Ethiopian Airlines plans to purchase 13 more of the aircraft as it continues expanding its fleet to more modern, fuel-saving planes.

A statement from the airline says the plane will be used on the Addis Ababa-Lagos and Addis Ababa-Dubai routes.

Photos of 'al-Shabab with crash drone'

In yesterday’s live page we reported that a suspected US drone had crashed in southern Somalia in territory held by the Islamist militant group al-Shabab.

A freelance Somali journalist, who focuses on al-Shabab, has now tweeted photos of the alleged surveillance drone:

View more on twitter

Police search for missing Nigerian singer

Isa Sanusi

BBC Africa, Nigeria

Ado Halliru Daukaka
Courtesy Daukaka family

Police are searching for a popular Hausa singer, Ado Halliru Daukaka, who went missing on Friday.

Othman Abubakar, the police spokesman in Nigeria’s north-eastern state of Adamawa, said the security agencies were doing their best to find the singer who disappeared after releasing a song highlighting incompetence and corruption among politicians.

His song, entitled Gyara kayanka, meaning “Let us do the right thing” in Hausa, points out how politicians make promises and never fulfil them.

One of his wives Hadiza Dauda told the BBC that Mr Daukaka was visited by unknown people in the early hours of Friday and that was the last time the family had set eyes on him.

In tears she said:

We have been searching for him. His phone is off. We are doing all possible but there is no sign of him. We are appealing to everyone to please help us find him. We are afraid for his life."

In northern Nigeria, singers have a huge influence and their songs can sway political leanings.

These days, their songs are shared using mobile phones, giving them an even wider reach.

Abdullahi Mustapha, a human rights activist, told the BBC: "Politicians don’t like criticism. All the want is praise of their names. "

Politicians don’t like criticism. All they want is praise of their names."

Friends and fans of Ado Daukaka have taken to social media urging people to pray for the missing singer.  

Hugely prized Botswana diamond to be auctioned

Person holding the diamond
The stone measures 65mm x 56mm x 40mm in size

The largest rough diamond to be discovered in more than 100 years will be auctioned today at Sotheby's in London. 

The 1,109 carat diamond, found at a Canadian-owned mine in Botswana, is expected to be sold for about $70m (£52m), AFP news agency reports. 

It has been named Lesedi La Rona, which means “Our Light” in Botswana’s Tswana language. 

It is the largest diamond to be ever found, after the 3,106-carat Cullinan diamond discovered in South Africa in 1905. 

It was cut into nine separate stones, many of which are in the British Crown Jewels.

Read more: From sleepy backwater to global diamond hub

Zimbabwe's salary crisis: Transport fees to be paid

Soldiers from Zimbabwe take pictures in front of a billboard as they wait to parade for the official opening of the AMANI AFRICA II, the First military exercise of the African Union's African Standby Force set up to quickly intervene in conflicts and crises, on October 19, 2015 at the South African defence Force Training camp in Lohatla, near Kimberley
Soldiers have reportedly been paid their salaries

Zimbabwe's cash-strapped government has offered civil servants $100 (£76) to cover their transport costs while they wait to be paid their June salaries, the state-owned Herald newspaper reports.

Teachers were "very angry and we don't know how to control them", Zimbabwe Teachers Association chairman Sifiso Ndlovu is quoted as saying.

He added:  

My fear is government may shut down if we are not careful. It does not need to be handled with arrogance."

The newspaper reports that teachers will be paid on 7 July, and health workers and the rest of the civil service a week later. 

However, the government has managed to pay the army and the air force, while police and prison officers would be paid tomorrow,  it adds.  

The Herald says the government is facing "cash flow challenges", and is rationalising the civil service in order to cut the wage bill, which currently stands at $200m a month. 

The rationalisation exercise was expected to save $400m annually, it reports.

Buhari in talks over Niger Delta insurgency

BBC Monitoring

Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari is due to hold talks today with traditional leaders from the oil-rich Niger Delta to discuss the threat posed by militants who say they want a greater share of the oil wealth for the region, local media reports. 

A new militant group, The Niger Delta Avengers, has carried out a spate of attacks, threatening stability and causing anxiety over oil production. 

Read: Who are the Niger Delta Avengers? 

Turkey attack: 'We ducked behind a counter'

Passengers fleeing airport in Istanbul
Some terrified passengers were seen leaving the airport on foot

A 77-year-old South African tourist in Turkey has been describing the gun and bomb attack which killed at least 26 people and wounded 140 at Istanbul airport. 

Paul Roos told Reuters news agency that he saw one of the attackers "randomly shooting" in the departures hall from about 50m (55 yards) away.

Mr Roos, who was on his way back home when the suspected militant Islamists struck, added: 

He [the gunman] was wearing all black. His face was not masked. We ducked behind a counter but I stood up and watched him.

Two explosions went off shortly after one another. By that time he had stopped shooting.

He turned around and started coming towards us. He was holding his gun inside his jacket.

He looked around anxiously to see if anyone was going to stop him and then went down the escalator.

We heard some more gunfire and then another explosion, and then it was over."

Today's wise words

Our African proverb of the day:

Don't teach the tiger cub to eat meat."

Sent by Joseph Dumbula, Blantyre, Malawi.

Click here to send us your African proverbs.

A tiger cub

Good morning

Welcome to the BBC Africa Live page for the latest news and sports from around the continent.