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  1. President Mugabe has made his first public appearance
  2. He attended a university graduation ceremony
  3. Military still referring to him as "commander-in-chief"
  4. But he is under growing pressure to resign
  5. Huge rally planned to demand he steps down
  6. Two African leaders urge him to go
  7. China calls for "legal solution" to crisis
  8. US demands "quick return to civilian rule"
  9. Soldiers remain on the streets of the capital, Harare
  10. Some government ministers have been detained
  11. The whereabouts of Mr Mugabe's wife remain unclear

Live Reporting

By Dickens Olewe and Farouk Chothia

All times stated are UK

Thank you for joining us

We are ending our live coverage of the army's seizure of power in Zimbabwe. We'll be back if there is any dramatic development. In the meantime, get the latest news from our our website.

We leave you with this photo, which captures the contradiction of the military takeover in Zimbabwe: Mr Mugabe is in office, but not in power:

Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe attends a university graduation ceremony in Harare, Zimbabwe, November 17, 2017.

Mugabe 'not having sleepless nights'

Shingai Nyoka

BBC Africa, Harare

Members of the Presidential Guard before Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe makes his first public appearance four days after the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) took over control of government in Harare, Zimbabwe, 17 November 2017.

Following guns and explosions on Tuesday night, many thought it was the end for Zimbabwe's long-time leader, Robert Mugabe.

But the violence has been replaced by an almost surreal normal.

Mr Mugabe has not yet reached a deal with the military about his future, and does not seem to be losing any sleep over it.

For the first time since his arrest, he appeared in public today, conferring degrees on university students in the capital, Harare.

President Robert Mugabe delivers a speech during a graduation ceremony at the Zimbabwe Open University in Harare, where he presides as the Chancellor on November 17 2017.
Robert Mugabe conferred degrees on more than 3,000 students

Sources suggest that he wants to continue as a figurehead until the ruling Zanu-PF party's national congress next month.

The catalyst of this crisis, his wife, Grace Mugabe, has not been seen in public.

Many suggest that she is confined to their private residence in the capital. It's her ambition to take over as vice-president that set off these events.

Mr Mugabe sacked Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa last week and Zanu-PF expelled him, in what was seen as a move to ease his wife's path to power.

With Mr Mnangagwa being a former defence minister and a veteran of the war for independence, the military intervened, saying it was targeting "criminals" around the president.

Read: How to spot a coup

What happens to deposed leaders?

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe pictured during a rally in Harare
Robert Mugabe was widely respected in Africa

Where do world leaders go when they're cast out of power and need to find a safe haven fast?

President Robert Mugabe famously declared that he would cling to power in Zimbabwe "until God says 'Come'". And at the age of 93, he might have expected that hour to arrive before a human intervention.

Nonetheless, following the military takeover, the leader of 37 years' standing must now barter himself a future.

Even now, the military is still negotiating with Mr Mugabe about his possible resignation, but when - or if - he goes, can he expect a villa in the sun like fallen strongmen of the past?

Read full story

Mugabe: A hero in his village

Stanley Kwenda

BBC Africa, Kutama


To get to President Robert Mugabe's rural home, you drive along the Robert Mugabe Highway.

It is probably one of the most well-maintained roads in Zimbabwe. It is like driving on a carpet.

Along the way you are greeted by a plaque erected in his honour.

Kutama Village is home to the 93-year-old. It is a small and tightly connected village where everyone knows each other.

You cannot really tell if they have been rattled by the current political crisis.

As we arrived, there was an air of uncertainty.

Mr Mugabe is respected here. To many, he is a father and a friend.

Speaking to me at his compound, a 65-year-old neighbour told me:

He's kind, he's a good man and he understands people's plight."

The man goes to St Francis Xavier Roman Catholic Church with Mr Mugabe, a devout Christian, whenever he visits.

He never demands special treatment. He visits people to check on their welfare."

Nevertheless, he supported the intervention by the army to remove Mr Mugabe from office, saying it is meant to correct a broken system:

If his term goes out then there's nothing wrong."

When I approached other villagers, I attracted immediate suspicion. They were not keen to talk.

But it seems to me that Mr Mugabe is seen as a hero in the village. It is easy to spot people wearing clothes emblazoned with his face.

Police officers are patrolling the area around Mr Mugabe's home.

You can't really peep inside the compound because of tight security.

University students 'hopeful'

Students at the University of Zimbabwe in the capital Harare are hopeful that the country will emerge from its current political crisis stronger, and will be able to deal with its myriad economic and social problems, as BBC Focus on Africa radio heard from them:

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Growing up in Zimbabwe - Dos and Don'ts

Kim Chakanetsa

BBC World Service

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe (C), lady Grace Mugabe (R) and his daughter Bona (L) attend on February 28, 2015 the celebration of Mugabe's 91st birthday in Victoria Falls.
President Robert Mugabe, seen here with his wife Grace and daughter Bona, comes from the Shona ethnic group

Great weight is placed on respecting your elders among the Shona, which are Zimbabwe's biggest ethnic group. It is one of the fundamental values.

At a young age you are taught to greet, speak and interact with elders in a particular manner.

For example, when arriving at someone's house, an exchange of greetings will be led by the younger party, who must enquire about the health of every adult present.

For girls or women, this could involve kneeling and clapping, then asking each individual in turn about their health. Boys and men will do much the same, but crouching.

Failing to do so is frowned upon, and taken as a sign of a poor upbringing or lack of respect.

Within the household, grandparents wield considerable influence.

This reverence for elders extends beyond your family. Any older woman or man is to be treated in the same way.

Zanu-PF 'backs' Mugabe's removal

All 10 provincial committees of Zimbabwe's ruling Zanu-PF party have resolved to remove President Robert Mugabe from office, a UK-based representative of the party has said.

The decision is expected to be endorsed by the party's top leadership body, the central committee, which will then elect the man Mr Mugabe sacked as vice-president, Emmerson Mnangagwa, as the acting leader, Nick Mangwana said.

Mr Mnangagwa will then be endorsed as the next president at Zanu-PF's national congress, next month, he added in a tweet:

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Zimbabwean academic Chipo Dendere tweeted that the central committee would also have to deal with other issues, including the fate of Vice-President Phelekezela Mphoko:

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Why Mugabe still commands respect

School children hold an image of Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe during the country's 37th Independence Day celebrations at the National Sports Stadium in Harare April 18, 2017.
Schoolchildren formed this mosaic of Robert Mugabe at Independence Day celebrations in April

President Robert Mugabe's first public appearance after the military takeover in Zimbabwe will have puzzled some.

Here he was at a university graduation ceremony given the authority to hand students their degrees, almost as if nothing had happened.

It tells us two things.

Firstly, this was political theatre. The suggestion being that behind-the-scenes negotiations over his exit deal are cordial.

But it was also more than spectacle. It showed that President Mugabe's opponents want to treat the elder statesman with dignity.

As in much of Africa, respecting your elders is ingrained in Zimbabwe's culture.

And 93-year-old Robert Mugabe, a liberation fighter who became the country's leader at independence in 1980, is seen as the father of the nation.

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#ThisFlag pastor calls for 'fresh start'

Zimbabwe's #ThisFlag protest movement leader Evan Mawarire has urged people to attend tomorrow's planned rally to demand President Robert Mugabe's resignation so that the southern African state could make a "fresh start".

Mr Mawarire, a pastor, is currently holding a livestream on his Twitter account to encourage Zimbabweans to show up at the rally:

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'Palace revolution'

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's wife Grace Mugabe looks on during a national church interface rally in Harare, Zimbabwe, November 5, 2017
First Lady Grace Mugabe wanted to be the next president

A "palace revolution" has taken place in Zimbabwe, after a split in the ruling Zanu-PF party over who will succeed President Robert Mugabe, South African political analyst Anthoni van Nieuwkerk has said.

Mr Mugabe sacked his deputy, Emmerson Mnangagwa, in what was seen as a move to anoint his wife, Grace, as his successor.

Mr Mnangagwa, a former defence minister, vowed to fight back, leading to the current crisis.

His allies were grouped in Zanu-PF faction known as Lacoste, while Mrs Mugabe's allies were G-40.

Mr Van Nieuwkerk told AFP:

It is a palace revolution where one section of the ruling Zanu-PF party is using elements of the military, but not all of the security services - the police for example - to bring change within the ruling party.

Grace Mugabe was trying to get rid of her opponents, who were using aspects of the military to get rid of her.

So it is a limited military intervention with political purposes. The coup is against G-40

The calculation that the military is making is 'let's treat him with dignity and respect as we search for the way forward'. That is why he made the appearance at the university."

No troops in Mugabe's village

Stanley Kwenda

BBC Africa, Kutama

President Robert Mugabe
Getty Images
Villager says that Robert Mugabe understands the plight of people

There is no military presence of in Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's home village of Kutama, some 90km (55 miles) from the capital, Harare.

Many here are aware of the political crisis unfolding but are reluctant to talk about it.

A villager, who did not want to be named, said that people are fond of the nonagenarian president.

Mr Mugabe is a good man "who understands people's plight and likes to mingle with people in the area when he visits", he said.

However, he would not mind if the president, in power since 1980, was forced out of office, the villager added.

US wants 'quick return to civilian rule'

Soldiers stand guard as President Robert Mugabe attends a university graduation ceremony in Harare, Zimbabwe, November 17, 2017.
The military has ended 36 years of loyalty to President Mugabe

US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has called for a "a quick return to civilian rule" in Zimbabwe, following the army takeover on Wednesday, Reuters news agency reports.

He described the situation as "a concern", adding:

Zimbabwe has an opportunity to set itself on a new path, one that must include democratic elections and respect for human rights."

Mr Tillerson made the comments to African foreign ministers in Washington, Reuters reports.

US hopes for 'new era'

The US is seeking "a new era" in Zimbabwe, the State Department's top official for Africa has said, Reuters news agency reports.

Donald Yamamoto added:

It's a transition to a new era for Zimbabwe, that's really what we're hoping for."

Robert Mugabe (C) makes his first public appearance four days after the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) took over control of government in Harare, Zimbabwe, 17 November 2017
Mr Mugabe was a fierce critic of Western powers

Regional mediators have been mediating between Mr Mugabe and the army to end the crisis.

The army says it has not staged a coup, despite the fact that Mr Mugabe is in its custody.

He was allowed to attend a university graduation ceremony earlier today.

China wants 'legal solution' in Zimbabwe

Members of the Presidential Guard before Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe makes his first public appearance four days after the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) took over control of government in Harare, Zimbabwe, 17 November 2017.
The army is deployed on the streets of Zimbabwe's capital, Harare

China has called for the political crisis in Zimbabwe to be legally resolved, Reuters news agency reports.

Foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang told reporters:

China calls on all sides in Zimbabwe to keep their eyes on the country's long-term and fundamental interests, and uphold dialogue and consultations to bridge differences, to promote a peaceful and appropriate resolution to the issue under a legal framework."

China was a key ally of Mr Mugabe, who increasingly pursued a "Look East" policy after Western powers condemned his controversial land seizure programme and treatment of the opposition.

China gave Mr Mugabe strong backing during the 1970s war for independence, and has invested heavily in the southern African state.

Last week, Zimbabwe's army chief Gen Constantino Chiwenga was on an official visit to China when Mr Mugabe fired his deputy Emmerson Mnangagwa.

Gen Chiwenga is allied with Mr Mnangagwa, and put Mr Mugabe under house arrest on Wednesday.

An emperor without clothes?

Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe attends a university graduation ceremony in Harare, Zimbabwe, November 17, 2017
The military detained President Robert Mugabe on Wednesday

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe was not accompanied by the presidential guard when he attended a university graduation ceremony in the capital, Harare, opposition politician David Coltart has said.

The MDC senator said he had been reliably informed that Mr Mugabe's convoy was made of only three a cars.

By allowing him to attend the event, the army generals who put him under house arrest on Wednesday were signalling to the regional bloc, the Southern African Development Community (Sadc), that Mr Mugabe was fine - but at the same time they were "keeping him in his place", he said.

Sadc is trying to mediate an end to the crisis.

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Ivorian leader 'calls for Mugabe to go'

Ivory Coast's President Alassane Ouattara has added his voice to calls for President Robert Mugabe, 93, to resign, AFP news agency reports.

He praised Mr Mugabe's role in the fight against colonialism, saying he "has been the object of respect and even adulation from many Africans and young Africans".

However, the "world has changed" and because of his age and the "long time he has spent in office, everyone is aware that it is time for him to hand over his seat to a new generation", Mr Ouattara added.

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe and his wife Grace attend a meeting of his ruling ZANU PF party"s youth league in Harare, Zimbabwe, October 7, 2017.
President Robert Mugabe's wife, Grace, 52, harboured ambitions to succeed him

Khama: 'We are presidents, not monarchs'

Ian Khama
Mr Khama has been a strong critic of Mr Mugabe

Botswana's President Ian Khama has backed calls for Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe to step down, the Reuters news agency reports.

He says that the military intervention was "an opportunity to put Zimbabwe on a path to peace and prosperity".

He added:

I don't think anyone should be president for that amount of time [37 years]. We are presidents, we are not monarchs. It's just common sense."

Botswana is among regional countries working to find a solution to resolve the ongoing political crisis.

Mr Khama is a long-standing critic of Mr Mugabe, and has previously called for him to step down.

Read: Mugabe - hero or wrecker?

Bonds are hard to break


Joseph Winter

BBC News website Africa editor

Mugabe attends graduation ceremony
Zimbabwe's security chiefs have worked with Mr Mugabe since they fought together in the 1970s war of independence

Although the army is obviously calling the shots in Zimbabwe, in public they still refer to Robert Mugabe as "his excellency, the president" and even "commander-in-chief".

This is why he has been allowed to attend the graduation ceremony.

This is partly to keep up the pretence that they have not staged a coup but they also have a genuine, deeply felt respect for him going back more than 40 years.

All of Zimbabwe's security chiefs have worked with Mr Mugabe since they fought together in the 1970s war of independence - and the bonds forged in that struggle are difficult to break.

In many ways, Zimbabwe's military remains the armed wing of Zanu-PF, as it was when they were all rebels fighting white-minority rule in the then Rhodesia.

Furthermore, in Zimbabwean culture, the elderly are treated with respect and no-one wants to be seen to be treating a 93-year-old in an undignified manner, especially a man even opposition figures refer to as the "father of the nation".

MP backs Zimbabwe 'change' rally

Zimbabwe's only independent MP - Temba Mliswa - has shared a video message expressing his hope for change in the country.

He calls on Zimbabweans who want "change" to attend a rally planned to take place tomorrow in the capital, Harare:

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'Mnangagwa is no democrat'

South African journalist Redi Tlhabi has been speaking to CNN about the ongoing political crisis in Zimbabwe.

She said that people "must not breathe a sigh of relief" that Mr Mugabe will soon be replaced, possibly by former Vice-President Emmerson Mnangagwa.

Mr Mnangagwa was sacked last week, leading to Wednesday's military takeover.

Ms Tlhabi added that she had interviewed Mr Mnangagwa several time and warned that "he is no democrat":

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Read more: Emmerson Mnangagwa: The 'crocodile' who snapped back

Mugabe confers degree on general's wife

Robert Mugabe (C) makes his first public appearance four days after the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) took over control of government in Harare, Zimbabwe, 17 November 2017
The army is in control of President Robert Mugabe's movements

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe conferred degrees on more than 3,300 students at the Zimbabwe Open University, including the wife of the general who detained him on Wednesday.

Marry Chiwenga obtained an MBA , the state-owned Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation reported.

However our reporter Shingai Nyoka, who was at the event, says she didn't turn up.

'Mugabe must go' rally

A faction of Zimbabwe's war veterans, which is holding a press briefing in the capital Harare, has been giving more details about tomorrow's planned rally.

An Al Jazeera journalist tweets that the group is calling on Zimbabweans to come out, and demand President Robert Mugabe's resignation:

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The war veterans have also called on the diaspora community to send money to their families so that they can travel to the capital for tomorrow's event:

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Reality Check: Zimbabwe's false rumours

Covering the military takeover in Zimbabwe has had its fair challenges as journalists try to report factually.

There have, predictably, been several attempts, especially online, to misinform.

The BBC's Reality Check has been looking into the the fake news shared online including a misleading picture of stash of cash found in a minister's house.

Read the full article on the BBC website.

A handful of Zimbabwean dollars.

Mugabe leaves university

Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe attends a university graduation ceremony in Harare, Zimbabwe, November 17, 2017.
President Robert Mugabe is reportedly refusing to step down

Zimbabwe's President Robert has left a university in the capital, Harare, after conferring degrees on students.

He did not speak, in his first public appearance since the military took him into its custody on Wednesday.

Read: 'Any change will do in Zimbabwe'

War veterans call for Mugabe to quit

A leader of war veterans in Zimbabwe says that President Robert Mugabe and his wife Grace are "finished", and the veteran leader should resign.

At a press conference in the capital, Harare, Christopher Mutsvangwa, said the military had arrested the "rot that was led by Grace Mugabe and her husband".

Here are some tweets from the press conference:

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Mr Mutsvangwa leads a faction of war veterans who are allied with Emmerson Mnangagwa, whose sacking as vice-president led to Wednesday's military takeover

Call for Mugabe to resign

A regional branch of Zimbabwe's ruling Zanu-PF party has called on President Robert Mugabe to resign, a Zimbabwean journalist has tweeted:

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Mugabe confers degrees

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has conferred degrees on students at a university in the capital, Harare, in his first public appearance since the military took power.

Zimbabwe's state broadcaster has tweeted photos of the event:

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Military solidarity rally planned

A rally in support of the military takeover in Zimbabwe is being planned for tomorrow in the capital, Harare.

Zimbabwean media mogul, Trevor Ncube, has shared the event's poster on Twitter.

It says the event is about expressing solidarity with the military and veterans of Zimbabwe's war for independence.

The poster adds that the rally is also about pushing for a "new Zimbabwe" after 36 years of President Robert Mugabe's rule.

"We demand a leadership that will relieve us of the suffering we have endured for too long," it says.

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Mugabe 'to cap general's wife'

President Robert Mugabe is expected to confer a degree on the wife of Constantine Chiwenga, the general who detained him on Wednesday after taking power, a Zimbabwean journalist has tweeted:

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General Chiwenga took power on Wednesday to end what he called the "treacherous shenanigans" in Zimbabwe's ruling party - an apparent reference to Mr Mugabe's plan to install his wife, Grace, as deputy president.

Will Mugabe speak?

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe will break with tradition if he speaks at the university graduation ceremony in the capital, Harare, according to this tweet:

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Mugabe 'resting his eyes'

If veteran Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe is under siege, he's clearly not showing it.

He has been slouched in his seat and he has been caught on camera with his eyes closed.

Robert Mugabe
Al Jazeera

Mr Mugabe's spokesman has previously said that the veteran leader is not asleep when he closes his eyes for long periods during meetings but is resting them

"The president cannot suffer bright lights," George Charamba was quoted in May by the state-run Herald newspaper as saying.

Photo of 'cunning' Mugabe

Mary Harper

Africa editor, BBC World Service

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Mr Mugabe's appearance at the graduation ceremony made it look like business as usual.

But it is not. It has simply added to the confusion about his future.

The military has essentially been in control for three days and, with the help of South African envoys, has been in talks with Mr Mugabe.

This cunning and experienced leader has resisted the push to go immediately. But he is facing unprecedented pressure to step down after nearly four decades in power.

Detained Mugabe keeps up an annual tradition

Andrew Harding

BBC News, Johannesburg

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has walked slowly along a red carpet, wearing an academic gown and hat, then joined the crowd of graduates singing Zimbabwe's national anthem.

This is an annual tradition for Mr Mugabe, but one few expected to see after the military placed him under house arrest on Wednesday.

The generals are still negotiating with the president about his possible resignation and an end to Zimbabwe's increasingly bizarre political stalemate.

Earlier today, the army said it was making significant progress in targeting criminals around Mr Mugabe.

Some observers believe that the 93 year old is still hoping to cling on to power.

The obvious deference with which the military are now treating him is an indication of how slow, and complicated the negotiations could well prove to be.

Video of Mugabe's first public appearance

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe is seated in a large wooden chair after his dramatic appearance at a university graduation ceremony in the capital, Harare, Reuters news agency reports.

The president declared the ceremony open, amid ululations from the crowd, it adds.

First Lady Grace Mugabe and Education Minister Jonathan Moyo are not present.

A video of the event has been shared by the Reuters Africa bureau chief:

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Trevor Noah's take on military takeover

South African comedian Trevor Noah has given his take on the military seizure of power in Zimbabwe on The Daily Show.

He joked:

I think the news is being over dramatic here. You don't overthrow a 93 year old man. Okay, you just don't wake him up."

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Mugabe in show of 'defiance'

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's attendance at a university graduation ceremony the capital, Harare, is a defiant display of his refusal to resign, AFP news agency reports.

He is wearing a blue academic gown and hat, it adds.

Mugabe 'cheered' at university ceremony

Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe has started speaking at a university graduation ceremony in the capital, Harare, to cheers from the crowd, a witness is quoted by Reuters news agency as saying.

This is his first public appearance since the military put him under house arrest on Wednesday.

A Twitter account monitoring the Zimbabwean media has tweeted:

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'Bursting condoms' in Zimbabwe

A CNN journalist has shared a video on Twitter of today's newspaper headlines in Harare.

A tabloid, H-Metro, thought it was far more important to lead with a story about bursting condoms, than the military takeover.

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Mugabe 'attends university graduation ceremony'

President Robert Mugabe has arrived at a university graduation ceremony in the capital, Harare, in his first public appearance since Wednesday's military seizure of power, Reuters news agency reports.

Earlier, the Al Jazeera correspondent in Harare tweeted:

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Military intervention a 'chance for change'

Zimbabwean activist Evan Mawarire says that the military intervention is not necessarily the change that many wanted but it opens up a chance to fix some the country's problems.

Mr Mawarire came to prominence last year when he led the #ThisFlag movement to protest against the economic problems in Zimbabwe, and to demand an end to President Robert Mugabe's 36-year rule.

He is currently facing subversion charges, to which he has pleaded not guilty.

Listen to the full interview he gave to BBC Newsday: