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Summary

  1. Events mark 100 years since the bloody WW1 Gallipoli campaign
  2. Allied forces were locked in an eight-month stalemate with Ottoman troops before pulling out in January 1916
  3. It was the first campaign leading to major casualties for Australian and New Zealand forces during the war
  4. Dawn service held on Gallipoli peninsula attended by Australian and NZ prime ministers, Prince Charles and Prince Harry
  5. The Queen, Prince William and party leaders attend Cenotaph ceremony in London before service at Westminster Abbey

Live Reporting

By Alex Therrien and Trevor Timpson

All times stated are UK

Get involved

End of live coverage

That ends our live coverage of today's commemorations of the centenary of the Gallipoli campaign in World War One.

Events in Australia, New Zealand, Turkey and the UK have been attended by thousands of people, as will as national leaders and military personnel.

Continue to follow the news story

here.

Servicemen from the Royal Navy parade down Whitehall during the commemorative ceremony
Getty Images

Turkish Gallipoli division commander

In 1934 Ataturk wrote a now famous tribute to the soldiers killed at Gallipoli:

"Those heroes that shed their blood and lost their lives ... You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace. There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours ... You, the mothers who sent their sons from faraway countries, wipe away your tears; your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well."

Portrait of Turkish Gallipoli division commander and founder of the first Turkish Republic Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Getty Images

Westminster Abbey

During the Westminster Abbey service the high commissioners of Australia and New Zealand, Alexander Downer and Sir Lockwood Smith respectively, gave readings from the Bible. Turkey's Ambassador Abdurrahman Bilgic read the famous message from Mustafa Kemal Ataturk modern Turkey's founding father, to bereaved pilgrims who visit the Gallipoli battle sites.

Prayers were said by young people from New Zealand and Australia and like many of the memorial events today the Last Post was sounded.

Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth arrive at Westminster Abbey
AFP/Getty Images

Westminster Abbey

The Queen arriving earlier at Westminster Abbey. As the congregation sang the hymn 'O valiant hearts, who to your glory came' the national flags of Australia, New Zealand, Turkey and the UK were carried through the church and placed close to the high altar as a sign of reconciliation between old enemies.

Westminster Abbey
AFP/Getty Images

Westminster Abbey

The Queen and Prince Phillip have just left Westminster Abbey at the end of the Gallipoli service.

Dean of Westminster

At the beginning of the service the Very Reverend Dr John Hall, Dean of Westminster, said in his bidding: "The landing of allied forces at Gallipoli exactly 100 years ago today led to one of the bloodiest battles of the First World War."Alongside forces from Britain and her allies, troops from Australia and New Zealand fought together as the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps: ANZAC."We honour today the courage of the men at Gallipoli."

@RealTimeWW1

tweets: Afternoon tea instead of battle: Brit. sailors are off for picnic, Imbros island.#Gallipoli100 http://goo.gl/FkPWHl - a respite from the campaign

Gallipoli commemoration
@RealTimeWW1

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

The tomb of the unknown warrior

The tomb of the unknown warrior just after it was sealed, November 1920
Getty Images
The tomb of the unknown warrior just after it was sealed, November 1920

The tomb contains the body of a unknown serviceman of the British Empire who was brought from France and buried in great state at Westminster Abbey on 11 November 1920.

The idea for the tomb came from the Reverend David Railton who was a chaplain on the front line.

It is a memorial particularly to

World War One soldiers who have no known grave.

Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond

tweets: Fantastic #Gallipoli100 commemorations all day today. Thanks to crew of #HMSBulwark for their hospitality and role

Phillip Hammond Foreign Secretary
@PHammondMP

Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey
@wabbey

tweets: Her Majesty The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh arrive for the #ANZACDay2015 service @BritishMonarchy pic.twitter.com/9PWhaEeo9P

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

Westminster Abbey, 1916

Lord Kitchener, the secretary of state for war, salutes as he is cheered on Anzac Day, 1916
Getty Images
Lord Kitchener, the secretary of state for war, salutes as he is cheered on Anzac Day, 1916

The Times reported that several hundred survivors from the Gallipoli campaign were present at the Abbey. It noted that the soldiers "all looked cheerful and hearty" despite some having lost limbs or their sight.

Most of the Abbey was filled with soldiers as well as

army chaplains. The choir was reserved for relatives of the fallen and distinguished guests including the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Kitchener and Australian Prime Minister Mr Hughes.

The service of thanksgiving and commemoration at Westminster Abbey is being attended by Australian and New Zealand expatriates.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

London embraces first Anzac Day, 1916

A large crowd in the Strand on Anzac day, April 25, 1916
Getty Images
A large crowd in the Strand on Anzac day, April 25, 1916

The Times recorded an emotional crowd gathering by the Abbey overflowing with "joy and pride in these men from the Dominions who had won fame on impossible battle grounds".

It went on: "When the King and Queen arrived the pressure was so great that the police were carried off their feet and the people nearly reached the Royal carriage."

Nigel Farage

Earlier, UKIP leader Nigel Farage stood with veterans and members of the armed services as he attended the ceremony to mark the 100th anniversary of the start of the Gallipoli campaign, at the Cenotaph, on Whitehall in London.

100th anniversary of the start of the Gallipoli campaign
Reuters

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

King George V marks first Anzac Day

Soldiers raise their caps in salute as King George V heads to Westminster Abbey, 1916
AWM
Soldiers raise their caps in salute as King George V heads to Westminster Abbey, 1916

99 years ago today the Queen's grandfather, King George V, attended the first Anzac Day service at Westminster Abbey.

It was held in honour of "our brothers who died at Gallipoli for their King and Empire, in the high cause of Freedom and Honour".

Queen arrives

The Queen has arrived at Westminster Abbey.

NZ Youth Ambassadors

tweets: A lovely service at Chunuk Bair, with fitting addresses from the Turkish Ambasador and the Prime Minister #ww100 #Gallipoli100

NZ Defence Force

tweets: Beautiful melancholic note perfect Last Post played by CPL Kevin Hickman at Chunuk Bair Anzac service #Gallipoli2015 #Anzac100

Westminster Abbey

Commemorations in the UK to mark the centenary of the start of the Gallipoli campaign will conclude with a service at 13:00 BST at Westminster Abbey. The Queen will lay a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

How April 25 became Anzac Day

A poster commemorating the first Anzac Day in 1916
AWM
A poster commemorating the first Anzac Day in 1916

The

Australian Prime Minister, William Hughes, championed the ordinary soldier and threw his support behind establishing the first Anzac Day in 1916.

He gave a rousing speech in London, saying: "On this day, called Anzac, the Australasian soldier leapt unheralded into the arena of war."

Some veterans, such as the New Zealander Captain Turnbull, felt "Anzac Day" underplayed the role of their British and French allies at Gallipoli.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

Evacuation

Supplies were piled up on the beaches and destroyed during evacuation
AWM
Supplies were piled up on the beaches and destroyed during evacuation

The Allies decided to pull out of Gallipoli in November 1915. They disguised their withdrawal by using tricks such as spacing out their artillery fire.

Half of the forces were evacuated from the peninsula in December and the last men left on 9 January, 1916. Careful planning meant there were only three reported casualties from the evacuation.

Clegg and Miliband

Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg and the Labour leader attended the memorial ceremony at the Cenotaph.

Clegg and Miliband
Getty Images

Kensington Palace

tweets: Prince Harry reads an extract from a letter by an unidentified member of the Canterbury Mounted Rifles #Anzac100

Prince Harry
Kensington Palace

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

The beginning of the end

Kitchener visits the troops at Gallipoli in November 1915
Getty Images
Kitchener visits the troops at Gallipoli in November 1915

Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, commander in chief of the British Army, visited the Anzacs at North Beach in November 1915.

He spent two hours surveying the Turkish line from Australian trenches inland of the Sphinx and at Lone Pine. After speaking to commanders on the ground, he recommended to the British War Cabinet that the peninsula be evacuated as little progress could be made without major reinforcements.

NZ Defence Force

tweets: Lovely to have their Royal Highnesses Prince Charles and Prince Harry at the NZ Chunuk Bair Anzac service #Anzac100 #gallipoli2015

John Key

Prime Minister of New Zealand

tweets: "For New Zealanders, nowhere in Gallipoli is more special than here on Chunuk Bair." #ANZAC100

Clarence House

tweets: The final service Their Royal Highnesses are attending for #Anzac100 is at Chunuk Bair, the New Zealand memorial

Memorial
Clarence House

Turkish ambassador

Abdurrahman Bilgic, the Turkish ambassador in the UK, speaks during a wreath-laying ceremony at St Paul's Cathedral earlier.

Abdurrahman Bilgic
AP

Scottish ceremony

Nicola Sturgeon, the First Minister of Scotland, lays a wreath at a special ceremony to mark the Gallipoli centenary at Edinburgh Castle.

Nicola Sturgeon
PA

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

New Zealanders at Chunuk Bair

Looking toward Chunuk Bair, which saw fierce fighting in August 1915
AWM
Looking toward Chunuk Bair, which saw fierce fighting in August 1915

Chunuk Bair bore witness to a courageous stand by New Zealand forces during the offensive of August 1915.

They were ordered to capture and hold the strategic summit, which they did during a desperate struggle. They were relieved by British troops and the summit was lost shortly after during a determined Turkish counter-attack.

It was the closest to a breakthrough the Allies achieved in the whole campaign.

Prince Harry and Prince Charles are attending their final service as part of the Gallipoli commemorations. It is at Chunuk Bair, the New Zealand memorial.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

Temporary truce

A Turkish envoy is led along an Allied-held beach to negotiate a truce to bury the dead, May 1915
Getty Images
A Turkish envoy is led along an Allied-held beach to negotiate a truce to bury the dead, May 1915

Fierce attacks and counter attacks in the first few months of the Gallipoli campaign left soldiers' corpses exposed to the elements in no man's land.

On 24 May, the Allies agreed to a one-day truce to allow both sides to bury their dead, as the summer heat had caused the bodies to rot, causing an unbearable smell.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

The Allied force in numbers

Troops landed at Suvla Bay in 1915 overlayed on how the area looks today
Getty Images
Troops landed at Suvla Bay overlayed on how the area looks today

The Allied forces were commanded by Briton Sir Ian Hamilton. Most of his overall force of 75,000 men were on the Peninsula by mid-May.

In August they were joined by 60,000 more men at Suvla Bay. In December 1915 to January 1916, 105,000 men were evacuated from the Peninsula.

45,000 Allied soldiers and 85,000 Turkish soldiers died between April 1915 and January 1916.

Daniel Boettcher

BBC News correspondent

Among those watching the ceremony were 10-year-old Edward Jackson, wearing the medals of his great grandfather, Commander Arthur Mallet, who served in the Royal Navy and was injured during the campaign. Near the Cenotaph, artist Nadir Imamoglu, born in Turkey but living in the UK for 40 years, has set up a sculpture based on a larger one he has created at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire. It is made of young oak trees- to reflect the ages of the men fighting at Gallipoli - the bare branches reaching into the sky. The sculptor explains this represents the arms of those injured in battle reaching out for help.

Daniel Boettcher

BBC News

Before the wreath-laying ceremony those gathering to take part heard music led by the massed bands - pieces drawn from some of the countries that took part in the Gallipoli campaign. Those waiting along Whitehall to lay their wreaths listened in silence - service personnel, veterans of more recent conflicts, members of military associations including the Gallipoli Association. Also present were descendants of those who fought in the campaign.

The Cenotaph ceremony is concluding with a march past.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

Turkish pride

Mustafa Kemal in 1916. He later became the founding father of modern Turkey
Getty Images
Mustafa Kemal in 1916. He later became the founding father of modern Turkey

The defending Turkish troops were driven by a grim determination at Gallipoli. The 19th division were led by Lt Col Mustafa Kemal, who later founded modern Turkey.

He told his officers: "I don't order you to attack - I order you to die. In the time which passes until we die, other troops and commanders can take our place."

At Anzac, Kemal's forces held on to the high ground and stopped the Australians and New Zealanders from advancing. They also stopped Allied forces advancing north of Krithia in Helles.

BBC iWonder: Exploring Gallipoli

Before poppies

Veterans marching past the Cenotaph in 1919
Getty Images
Veterans marching past the Cenotaph in 1919

Before the

poppy or the other symbols
of remembrance that we know today came into being, people started to mark the absence of those at the front.

From 1916, street shrines began to appear. A year later, the Imperial War Museum was founded to record the conflict for future generations. The Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC) was established to record the deaths and mark the graves of those who had fallen.

Here is Michael Toohey, wearing his fallen relative's medals.

Michael Toohey
BBC

Michael Toohey, 22, was among the young people to give a reading at the Cenotaph. His great-great uncle died on the first day of the Gallipoli campaign and Michael was wearing his medals.