Map: Who's making the most out of parking?

A survey of 359 English councils has revealed that some are generating huge cash surpluses from parking charges.

The study for the RAC Foundation is based on annual returns to the Department for Communities and Local Government, and includes revenue from on-street parking permits, off-street charges and parking penalties for 2011-12.

These are offset against the cost of running parking operations, leaving some councils with a deficit.