Cabinet papers reveal 'secret coal pits closure plan'
Newly released cabinet papers from 1984 reveal mineworkers' union leader Arthur Scargill may have been right to claim there was a "secret hit-list" of more than 70 pits marked for closure.
The government and National Coal Board said at the time they wanted to close 20. But the documents reveal a plan to shut 75 mines over three years.
A key adviser to then-PM Margaret Thatcher denies any cover-up claims.
The miners' strike began in March 1984 and did not end until the next year.
Other papers from 1984 reveal warnings of violence outside the Libyan embassy, in which WPC Yvonne Fletcher was killed.
One of the warnings was passed on by the British ambassador in Tripoli, Oliver Miles, who was sceptical about what he was told by Libyan government officials.
And the previously confidential files released on Friday by the National Archives also show the effect of the Brighton bomb on Mrs Thatcher's thinking about Ireland.'Secret' meeting at No 10
The year-long miners' strike, which started in March 1984, was characterised by often violent confrontations between police and massed picketing miners.
Long-shot wait for miners' cash
At one stage during the miners' strike the government hoped it might catch red-handed someone from the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) trying to smuggle a suitcase full of banknotes into Britain.
The union's assets had been seized after the NUM refused to pay fines. But the government thought miners might get financial support from Moscow or eastern Europe, and was trying to prevent the funds getting through.
Cabinet Secretary Sir Robert Armstrong wrote: "If a representative of the NUM could be detected entering this country with a suitcase full of banknotes, it might be possible for him to be stopped and searched at customs."
"Those concerned" (by which he presumably meant Special Branch and MI5) were "exercising vigilance" and on the look-out for anyone from the union going abroad "for the purpose of collecting consignments of notes".
This was, he admitted, something of a long shot, "but is the best we can do".
But one of the documents in the archives suggests that there was an agreement in government to shut 75 pits over three years, and cut 64,000 jobs - but that no list of which should be closed should be issued.
Nick Jones, who covered the strike for BBC radio as its industrial correspondent and later wrote a book about the dispute, said a document in the files dating from September 1983 was of particular significance.
The document, marked "Not to be photocopied or circulated outside the private office", records a meeting attended by just seven people, including the prime minister, chancellor, energy secretary and employment secretary, at No 10.
The meeting was told the National Coal Board's pit closure programme had "gone better this year than planned: there had been one pit closed every three weeks" and the workforce had shrunk by 10%.
The new chairman of the board, Ian MacGregor, now meant to go further.
"Mr MacGregor had it in mind over the three years 1983-85 that a further 75 pits would be closed... There should be no closure list, but a pit-by-pit procedure.
"The manpower at the end of that time in the industry would be down to 138,000 from its current level of 202,000."
As a result, two-thirds of Welsh miners would become redundant, a third of those in Scotland, almost half of those in north east England, half in South Yorkshire and almost half in the South Midlands. The entire Kent coalfield would close.
The final paragraph of the document read: "It was agreed that no record of this meeting should be circulated."
A week later another document written by a senior civil servant suggested the same small group should meet regularly in future, but that there should be "nothing in writing which clarifies the understandings about strategy which exist between Mr MacGregor and the secretary of state for energy".
"If this document had ever emerged during the strike it would have been devastating for the credibility of Margaret Thatcher" because Mrs Thatcher and Mr MacGregor always maintained there were plans for the closure of only 20 pits, said Mr Jones.
- Cabinet papers used to be published after 30 years
- The National Archives is reducing that gap to 20 years
- To get to that point, it is currently releasing documents every six months - hence the latest crop, from 1984
- Papers for 1985 will be available this coming summer
"It raises in my mind the question of whether there was a cover-up of these figures, and whether when we look back at what actually happened Arthur Scargill was right when he claimed that Ian MacGregor wanted to butcher the industry all along."
But it is a version of events that is pooh-poohed by Lord Armstrong, who as Sir Robert Armstrong was Mrs Thatcher's cabinet secretary at the time.
The National Coal Board was closing something like 20 pits a year anyway, he said - 75 over three years was not such a big increase. The real issue was Mr Scargill's "impossible demand" for a guarantee that uneconomic pits would not be closed.
So why the secrecy? "I think when you're in a negotiation of this kind you want to show as little of your hand as you can to those who are negotiating, particularly if the purposes of those people are, as they were in this case, malign," he told the BBC.
The papers reveal that in July 1984 - when the dock workers also went out on strike - the government briefly wobbled and considered calling a state of emergency and getting troops to move coal.
But it decided the risk of alienating crucial power station workers was too great. "The use of service drivers... would sharply increase the emotional temperature," ministers were warned.
In November of that year, two Home Office civil servants reviewed police tactics during the strike and found them sometimes wanting.
Margaret Thatcher's year, day-by-day
Margaret Thatcher's 1984 began with a visit from Jimmy Savile at Chequers and ended with a six-day round-the-world trip which took in Beijing and Washington, according to a typed-up daily record of her engagements.
In October she came close to death when a bomb exploded in the Brighton hotel where she was staying for the Conservative Party Conference. The entry for Friday 12 October begins with the laconic entry: "02.45 Bomb". The diary shows she was taken to Brighton police station and later to the police training centre at Lewes before returning to the conference at 09:20.
Giving her conference speech [above], later that day, she declared: "All attempts to destroy democracy by terrorism will fail."
Throughout the year she looked impeccable - not surprisingly, given that she had her hair done on average 11 times a month.
Alison Smith and her colleague Robert Hazell visited two police forces in the thick of the dispute - West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire.
They concluded that one of the most controversial tactics used by the police, stopping coach-loads of striking miners on their way to mass pickets and turning them back, may have been counter-productive.
"Turning them back may merely send them to other destinations to demonstrate, rather than deterring them from attending a picket line at all," they wrote.
And once they had been diverted the police might have no information on where they were.
Both police forces made use of outside manpower in the shape of "police support units", or PSUs, from other forces.
The civil servants found the most sought-after PSUs came from non-metropolitan police forces in the south of England - Cambridgeshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Avon and Somerset and West Mercia. But those from London could be a problem.
"Metropolitan PSUs were valued in violent confrontations but at other times... their attitudes were thought to be harder for local people to identify with and so perhaps more likely to lead to an increase in tension.
"The casual approach of the metropolitan PSUs had been a surprise to those forces which had not the same experience of public order problems being treated as everyday occurrences."Violence warning at Libyan embassy
The files also contain details of three warnings received by the Foreign Office of possible violence at the demonstration outside the Libyan embassy - known as the Libyan people's bureau - on the morning of 17 April 1984.
Guns planted in British embassy
After Britain and Libya had broken off diplomatic relations, the Libyans apparently planted guns taken in diplomatic bags from their embassy in London, in the British embassy in Tripoli.
A note in the files from Margaret Thatcher's private secretary, Tim Flesher, said the Italians, who were by then looking after British interests in Libya, passed on the serial numbers of the weapons the Libyans claimed to have found.
Police in London concluded they came from a batch bought from a dealer in London by the Libyan people's bureau. This, Flesher wrote, "suggests a quite extraordinary degree of incompetence on the part of the Libyans".
On that morning WPC Fletcher died and 11 people were injured when a machine-gun was fired into a crowd of anti-Gaddafi demonstrators from the windows of the bureau in St James's Square in central London.
The first warning came from a pair of Libyan diplomats who rang the Foreign Office and then went there in person just after midnight, and again on the morning of the shooting.
A telegram later that day to Foreign Secretary Sir Geoffrey Howe, who was in Beijing, described the shooting as "a very ugly incident" and said the diplomats' request had been passed on to the Home Office and the police during the night, "drawing attention to the fact that the Libyans were capable of carrying out their threats".
The telegram said Special Branch decided nonetheless to allow the demonstration to go ahead. "A substantial police presence was arranged and barriers were installed to control the crowd," it said.
A second warning came when Mr Miles was summoned to a meeting at the Libyan foreign ministry, again after midnight.
In a telegram to London sent early the next day he reported what a Libyan official had said: "The Libyan government would not be responsible for the consequences if the demonstration took place and they might include violence."
Mandela's case raised at meeting
Margaret Thatcher raised the case of Nelson Mandela's imprisonment during a controversial visit in June 1984 from South African president PW Botha - but was diplomatically rebuffed.
The newly-opened files include her own account of a private conversation between the two leaders which was scheduled to last 15 minutes but actually went on for 40. "Mr Botha said that he noted the prime minister's remarks but that he was not able to interfere with the South African judicial process."
This was effectively what she had said to him a few minutes earlier when he asked about four South African nationals facing charges in Britain of breaching the arms embargo against South Africa.
Before the visit No 10 was disconcerted to learn the South Africans planned to bring a small present to give the prime minister. "Do we have to reciprocate?" one official wrote. "I am afraid we must," another replied.
They gave him a small Crown Derby bowl valued at £162.50, plus vat.
He replied that threats of violence did not impress the British government.
His telegram went on: "I was shown out by the UK desk officer who seemed as little impressed by this performance as I was. I made a bet with him that no such demonstration will take place. Grateful to know the outcome."
Mr Miles has long since retired but denied he had not taken the warning seriously. "I did take it seriously, which was why I passed it on to the Foreign Office," he said. "But I didn't believe it, no."
Sir Geoffrey later told the Commons: "The House should know that such night-time summonses were by no means unusual in Tripoli."
The third warning came from GCHQ, which intercepted a message from Tripoli instructing those in the Bureau to open fire - but the intercepts only arrived three hours after WPC Fletcher was shot.
The following day Mrs Thatcher, who was on an official visit to Lisbon, accepted that the policewoman's murderer would have to go free in order to protect British diplomats and citizens in Libya, even if the public were outraged.
The Libyans enjoyed diplomatic immunity and the police could not arrest them or enter their bureau. A police request to search the bureau would, she was told, "set a very dangerous precedent" and would invite retaliation in Tripoli.
There is a note of a phone conversation between Mrs Thatcher and home secretary Leon Brittan in London.
"The home secretary asked whether repatriating the Libyan staff, including the perpetrator of the murder, could be defended.
Letter to hunger striker's family
Among the files released on Friday was one from 1981 which revealed that in September of that year Margaret Thatcher wrote to the mother and sister of an IRA hunger striker.
Liam McCloskey's 15-year-old sister Sharon had written to the prime minister (pictured above) urging her to save his life: "My family, friends, relations and I do not want to see him die as his eight comerades (sic) and Kevin Lynch whom he replaced did."
In her reply, Mrs Thatcher wrote: "I want you to know that despite what is said and written by some people about my attitude to the hunger strike, I very much regret that young men have been prepared to throw away their lives for an objective which - as I have said on many occasions - no responsible government anywhere could grant, since it could only aid and abet those who advocate and use violence to attain political ends."
She urged Sharon to persuade her brother the government could not concede to the prisoners' demands. Liam began taking food again on 26 September after his family made it clear they would ask for medical intervention if he lost consciousness. On 3 October the IRA called off the hunger strike.
"The prime minister thought it could, provided British staff were successfully repatriated too."
In a later discussion, the pair also agreed that Britain would have to turn a blind eye if the Libyans used diplomatic bags to smuggle weapons out of the bureau.
In the event, while police in London besieged the Libyan people's bureau for a total of 11 days, the British embassy in Tripoli was also surrounded. Mr Miles cabled on 17 April: "My staff and I are being prevented from leaving the embassy by a group of revolutionaries who are issuing orders to the police."
And on 24 April the ambassador reported that the Libyans were threatening ("via Willey of the BBC") to enter and burn his embassy if police in London entered the Libyan bureau.
There were several days of tense negotiations before women and children from the embassy were allowed to leave Libya. The rest of the diplomats followed as Britain and Libya broke off diplomatic relations (they were not restored until 1999).
Meanwhile, the Libyans in London finally left their bureau on 27 April and were taken to the Civil Service College at Sunningdale to be questioned by police before being put on a plane at Heathrow.
Parliament was later told that police had narrowed down the identity of the murderer to one of two people, but that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute.
A list in the files of the 30 people taken from the bureau included one man named as the shooter in 2011 by a Canadian prosecutor working on behalf of Scotland Yard.Thatcher 'gratuitously offensive' to Ireland
The newly-released files also show the effect of the Brighton bomb of 12 October 1984 - which targeted the Conservative conference hotel in the town, killing five and injuring many others - on Mrs Thatcher's thinking about Ireland.
She had been due to meet Irish leader Garret FitzGerald at a summit a month after her party conference to discuss an Anglo-Irish agreement (eventually signed in November 1985, and seen as the first step in the process that led to the Good Friday agreement of 1998).
Secret talks had been going on for many months between Sir Robert Armstrong and his opposite number in Dublin, Dermot Nally, aimed at forging an agreement.
But on a background briefing for the summit the prime minister wrote: "The events of Thursday night at Brighton mean that we must go very slow on these talks if not stop them. It would look as if we were bombed into making concessions to the Republic."
In the event a meeting on 31 October decided to continue the Armstrong/Nally talks.
Foreign secretary Sir Geoffrey told his colleagues: "There was no question of the government being bombed into concessions. But nor should they be bombed out of a search for a settlement."
Mrs Thatcher's sympathies for Northern Ireland's unionists also made agreement difficult.
She rejected an early draft of a communique to be issued after the summit, writing at the top of the document: "I could not possibly agree to this. It would strike fear into the unionists."
Beside the proposed form of words - "There can be no change in the constitutional status of Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom without the consent of the majority of its people" - she wrote "Not strong enough" and offered an alternative: "The province is part of the UK and will remain so unless the majority etc."
At the summit itself, in a private meeting with no civil servants present, the two leaders shared their fears that if the peace process did not move forward the moderate nationalist SDLP would lose ground to Sinn Fein. Mr FitzGerald said that might lead to civil war.
Mrs Thatcher told him the IRA had a Marxist and an international terrorist dimension to it.
"She was beginning to understand what the United States felt about Nicaragua," she added.
After the summit she caused a diplomatic incident when she robustly rejected at a press conference three possible models for the future of Northern Ireland - unification with the Republic, confederation or joint British-Irish rule.
This caused a furore in Ireland, and Mr FitzGerald privately called her remarks "gratuitously offensive".
His words were leaked - one consequence was that Mrs Thatcher decided not to send him a personal letter thanking him for coming to the summit.
"Neither of us, I think, underestimates the difficulties; but our talks at Chequers have helped to clarify the problems and the good-will between us is a solid foundation on which to build," she wrote.
The letter was signed: "Every good wish, yours ever, Margaret."
At the top of the letter one of her senior advisers, Charles Powell, wrote: "The prime minister subsequently decided not to send this letter. Please retain on file."
Update 13 February 2014: Chris Collins of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation has written to me complaining that the target of more than 70 pit closures only ever represented the "preliminary conclusions" of the Coal Board chairman Ian MacGregor, and - on the evidence of the documents quoted - was never adopted as government policy.
He and I agree that in September 1983 ministers were told at a meeting about MacGregor's plan to close 64 pits, rising to 75 over three years. I argue this plan was "secret", as evidenced by the decision not to circulate a written record of the meeting and by a note of 21 September from Mrs Thatcher's private secretary which says there is to be nothing in writing clarifying the understandings between MacGregor and ministers.
But what happened after that? At a meeting on 19 January 1984 ministers explicitly adopted a plan to cut jobs by 45,000 over two years (and thus close 45 pits). Nothing was said about any further closures. "Summing up," we are told, "the Prime Minister said that the objective of a more accelerated run-down of coal capacity was accepted." Nick Jones argues this implies support for the longer-term objective of achieving NCB break-even by 1988, which MacGregor believed meant closing up to 75 pits.
There is in the documents no explicit statement adopting the 75 pit target as government policy (though given the sensitivity about putting anything in writing you would not expect one). Equally, there is no explicit statement disavowing the target.