RAF rehearse Queen's birthday flypast in Lincolnshire
Aircrews have been rehearsing at RAF Waddington in Lincolnshire for the Queen's official birthday celebrations.
Chinook and Puma helicopters, Typhoon, Hercules, C130, King Air, HS-125 and Tornado GR4s took part in the practice ahead of the display on Saturday.
The flypast over Buckingham Palace also includes a Spitfire, Hurricane and Lancaster from the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF).
The Red Arrows aerobatic display team will conclude the event.
Sqn Ldr Martin Rendall, who is in charge of planning the flypast, said the rehearsals were important because of the different types and speeds of the aircraft involved.
"We have helicopters flying at 100 knots (115 mph) and the Red Arrows flying at 350 knots (403 mph) - so it really is critical we get the timings right," he said.
"We use the BT speaking clock to get the time and every captain is responsible for getting their aircraft in the right place at the right time."
Spitfire pilot Sqn Ldr Duncan Mason, from the BBMF, said: "It is a special privilege to fly over Buckingham Palace.
"But there is always a bit of extra pressure to get the times right, especially when there are so many planes involved."