DR Congo country profile
- 15 November 2016
- From the section Africa
The recent history of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) has been one of civil war and corruption.
DR Congo is a vast country with immense economic resources and, until recently, has been at the centre of what some observers call "Africa's world war", with widespread civilian suffering the result.
The war claimed an up to six million lives, either as a direct result of fighting or because of disease and malnutrition.
The war had an economic as well as a political side. Fighting was fuelled by the country's vast mineral wealth, with all sides taking advantage of the anarchy to plunder natural resources. Some militia fight on in the east, where a big United Nations force is trying to keep the peace.
President: Joseph Kabila
Joseph Kabila became president when his father Laurent was assassinated in 2001. He was elected in 2006, and secured another term in controversial elections in 2011.
Mr Kabila has enjoyed the clear support of Western governments, regional allies such as South Africa and Angola, and mining groups that have signed multi-million dollar deals under his rule.
He received military training in China and fought alongside his father in a military campaign from the east that toppled dictator Mobutu Sese Seko in 1997 after more than 20 years of despotic, whimsical and corrupt rule.
In November 2016, Prime Minister Augustin Matata Ponyo and his cabinet resigned as part of an agreement Mr Kabila's ruling coalition signed with the opposition to delay the presidential vote until 2018. Mr Kabila's mandate had been due to expire in December 2016.
The government's departure paves the way for a new cabinet with some posts for opposition figures who agreed to Mr Kabila staying on as president.
The Congolese media operate against a backdrop of political power struggles and violent unrest.
Reporters Without Borders says media workers face arrest, threats and violence. Reporters exposing corruption are at particular risk.
The press is able to criticise government bodies, and some publications serve as mouthpieces for opposition parties.
The DR Congo has around 175 newspapers and magazines, 300 radio stations and 50 TV stations.
Radio France Internationale (RFI), which is widely available on FM, is the most popular news station, according to the US-based Committee to Protect Journalists. The authorities have been known to suspend RFI's local relays over the station's coverage.
Some key dates in DRCongo's history:
1200s - Rise of Kongo Empire, centred in modern northern Angola and including extreme western Congo and territories round lakes Kisale and Upemba in central Katanga (now Shaba).
16th-17th centuries - British, Dutch, Portuguese and French merchants engage in slave trade through Kongo intermediaries.
1870s - Belgian King Leopold II sets up a private venture to colonise Kongo.
1908 - Congo Free State placed under Belgian rule following outrage over treatment of Congolese.
1960 - Independence, followed by civil war and temporary fragmentation of country.
1965 - Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power.
1997 - Rebels oust Mobutu. Laurent Kabila becomes president.
1997-2003 - Civil war, drawing in several neighbouring countries (Africa's first world war).
2003 - 2016 - Conflict persists in the east, where there are still dozens of armed groups.
2006 - First free elections in four decades. Joseph Kabila wins the run-off vote.
2015 - At least 30 killed in protests against proposed changes to electoral law which the opposition says are designed to allow President Kabila to remain in power in violation of the constitution.