Egypt profile - Media
Egypt is a major regional media player. Its press is one of the most influential and widely-read in the region, and its TV and film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City.
The state is a major force in the media and runs many TV and radio stations, websites, newspapers and magazines.
State media are almost always loyal to President al-Sisi. Most pro-Islamist media have been closed, or now broadcast from abroad.
Since the 2011 revolution, "successive governments have tried to control the media and have not hesitated to impose measures restricting journalists' freedom," Reporters Without Borders said in 2016.
The authorities are "orchestrating a 'Sisification' of the media and a witch hunt against the now-banned Muslim Brotherhood", the group said.
Television is the most popular medium. There are two state-run national TVs and six regional channels. Many private networks emerged in the post-Mubarak era.
Egypt is a big force in satellite TV. Most leading Arab pay TV networks have a presence at Media Production City in Cairo. Egypt was the first Arab nation to have its own satellite, Nilesat.
There are more than 20 daily newspapers - state-run or privately-published.
Some 30.1 million Egyptians were online by 2016 (InternetLiveStats.com). Mobile platforms account for the largest share of users.
Media figures, celebrities and politicians are among the main social media attractions.
- Al-Ahram - state-owned daily, the oldest newspaper in the Arab world
- Al-Ahram Weekly - in English
- Al-Jumhuriyah - state-owned daily
- Al-Misri al-Yawm - private daily
- Al-Shuruq - private daily
- Al-Yawm al-Sabi - private daily
- Egypt Independent - in English, sister paper of Al-Misri al-Yawm
- Daily News Egypt - private, in English
- Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU) - state-run, operates domestic and satellite networks, including Nile News, Nile TV International and Nile TV thematic channels
- Dream TV - private, via satellite
- Al-Mihwar - private, via satellite
- Al-Nahar - private, via satellite
- Al-Hayat - private, via satellite
- Al-Hayah - private, via satellite
- CBC - private, via satellite
- ONTV - private, via satellite
- Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU) - state-run, operates national, regional and external services including flagship General Programme
- Nile FM - private, Western pop
- Nogoum FM - private, Arabic pop