Eritrea is the only African country to have no privately-owned news media. The state of media freedom has been described as "scandalous" by watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
The government closed the private press in 2001 for "endangering national security" and arrested many journalists after several publications printed the dissenting views of some National Assembly members.
In 2012, Eritrea was ranked last for the fifth year running in the RSF world press freedom index.
Eritrea is the most prolific jailer of journalists in Africa, regional watchdog EAJA reported in 2011, adding that more than 30 journalists are being held without charge.
There were just under 284,000 internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats). RSF says while there is no widespread filtering, some diaspora websites have been blocked. Bloggers and other web users have been threatened.
- Hadas Eritrea - government-owned, published three days a week
- Eritrea Profile - government-owned weekly, in English
- Tirigta - pro-government youth weekly owned by ruling party
- Geled - weekly youth paper
- Eri TV - state-run
- Voice of the Broad Masses of Eritrea (Dimtsi Hafash) - state-run, operates two networks, programmes in 11 languages
- Radio Zara - state-run, FM network
- Shabait.com - Ministry of Information website
- Erina (Eritrean News Agency) - state-run