The Gambia country profile
- 2 December 2016
- From the section Africa
The Gambia is one of Africa's smallest countries and, unlike many of its west Africa neighbours, it has enjoyed long spells of stability since independence.
Outgoing President Yahya Jammeh ruled the country with an iron fist after seizing power in a bloodless coup in 1994. His 22-year rule ended in 2016 when he was defeated in a shock election result by the main opposition candidate, Adama Barrow.
Stability has not translated into prosperity. Despite the presence of the Gambia River, which runs through the middle of the country, only one-sixth of the land is arable and poor soil quality has led to the predominance of one crop - peanuts.
Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange, as is the money sent home by Gambians living abroad. Most visitors are drawn to the resorts that occupy a stretch of the Atlantic coast.
Republic of The Gambia
Population 1.8 million
Area 11,295 sq km (4,361 sq miles)
Languages English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula
Major religions Islam, Christianity
Life expectancy 58 years (men), 60 years (women)
President-elect: Adama Barrow
Adama Barrow defeated longtime President Yahya Jammeh in a shock election result in December 2016.
Mr Barrow, a property developer, ended Yahya Jammeh's 22-year authoritarian rule by winning more than 45% of the vote.
A member of the United Democratic Party (UDP), during his election campaign Mr Barrow pledged to revive the country's economy.
Outgoing president: Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh seized power in 1994 as a young army lieutenant.
He won four widely criticised multi-party elections and faced down several coup attempts before suffering a shock election defeat at the hands of opposition candidate Adama Barrow in 2016.
A controversial leader, Jammeh raised eyebrows early in 2007 when he claimed that he could cure AIDS with herbs and bananas.
Mr Jammeh's government has been criticised by international rights groups for its attitude to civil liberties. He has been accused of carrying out a brutal crackdown on the opposition ahead of the December 2016 presidential election.
Jammeh called homosexuals ''vermin'' in 2014 and said the government would deal with them as it would malaria-carrying mosquitoes.
Opposition forces attempted a coup during his absence abroad in December 2014, but security forces remained loyal to the president.
A "pervasive climate of fear" forces most journalists to practice self-censorship or flee the country, according to Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
The law provides for jail terms for libel or sedition. Freedom House notes that journalists are regularly arrested on "flimsy and superficial" charges.
State-run Radio Gambia broadcasts tightly-controlled news, which is relayed by private radio stations. Radio France Internationale is available on FM in Banjul.
The government operates the only national TV station and blocks critical websites.
Many news websites and blogs are based overseas and some are run by exiled journalists, according to Freedom House.
Some key dates in Gambia's history:
1889 - Present boundaries of The Gambia set by agreement between Britain and France; five years later it becomes a British protectorate until its independence in 1965.
1982 - The Gambia and Senegal form a loose confederation called Senegambia, which collapses in 1989.
1994 - Lieutenant Yahya Jammeh takes over the country in a coup. He is elected president two years later in a vote that three major political parties were barred from taking part in. He goes on to win three more elections and defeat several coup attempts.
2013 - President Jammeh announces Gambia's withdrawal from the Commonwealth, describing it as a "neo-colonial institution". Critics say the move was prompted by wide-spread international condemnation over the government's human rights violations.
2015 - President Jammeh declares the country an Islamic republic to break from the country's "colonial legacy".
2016 - President Jammeh's 22-year-rule ends in a shock election defeat to Adama Barrow.