Guinea-Bissau country profile
- 4 January 2017
- From the section Africa
West Africa's Guinea-Bissau was part of the Portuguese Empire for centuries and was once known as the Slave Coast; today 14% of the population speaks Portuguese.
Once hailed as a potential model for African development, the country is now one of the poorest countries in the world.
The vital cashew nut crop provides a modest living for most of Guinea-Bissau's farmers and is the main source of foreign exchange.
But today the nation has a massive foreign debt and an economy that relies heavily on foreign aid. It has become transhipment point for Latin American drugs.
At the end of the 1990s the country experienced a conflict which drew in Guinea, Nigeria, Senegal, and France and ended with the president going into exile.
President: Jose Mario Vaz
A former finance minister, Jose Mario Vaz won the presidential election run-off of May 2014 by a big margin.
He is the first elected leader since the army mutinied in 2012 and plunged the country - already plagued by corruption and cocaine trafficking - into chaos.
Mr Vaz's election was meant to draw a line under those events, but Guinea-Bissau has a record of military coups, and no elected leader has served a full term since independence 40 years ago.
Stability continued to remain an elusive goal under the new president. A year after coming to power, Mr Vaz sacked his prime minister and party colleague, Domingos Simoes Pereira, after falling out with him.
During the ensuing political crisis, there were four changes of prime minister in little over a year, amid a power struggle between Mr Vaz and his party, led by Mr Simoes Pereira.
The media experience "harsh treatment" from the authorities, security forces, and individuals with connections to the military and drug traffickers, US-based Freedom House reports.
A climate of fear has led to self-censorship, which particularly affects reporting on drug trafficking.
Broadcasters face many challenges, not least the lack of a reliable power supply. Private radio and newspapers exist but they are hindered by financial instability.
Some key date in Guinea-Bissau's history:
1446-47 - First Portuguese arrive; subsequently administered as part of the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands, the Guinea area becomes important in the slave-trade. Guinea-Bissau becomes a separate colony in the Portuguese Empire in 1879.
1974 - Independence following a guerrilla war.
1980 - Country's first president, Luis Cabral, is ousted in military coup led by Joao Bernardo Vieira; plans for unification with Cape Verde dropped. The overthrow is the first of many political coups that undermine the country's stability over the next four decades.
2006 - Guinea-Bissau soldiers battle Senegalese rebels along the southern border.
2006 - Guinea-Bissau appeals for international help to stop people-traffickers using its remote coastline to smuggle migrants, including Asians, to Europe.
2007 - Donors have one last opportunity to save Guinea-Bissau from chaos and to combat Latin American drug cartels, the UN and International Monetary Fund warn.
2010 - US names two top military officials as international drugs traffickers and freezes their US assets. EU announces it is ending mission to reform Guinea Bissau's security forces, saying lack of respect for rule of law is making this an impossible task.
2011 - EU suspends part of its aid to Guinea-Bissau because of concerns over governance and the rule of law. Several months later, thousands take to the streets to demand the resignation of Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Junior for his failure to curb rising food prices.
2012 - The UN Security Council expresses concern that drug trafficking has increased, and demands a return to constitutional rule.
2014 - Presidential election run-off is won by Jose Mario Vaz. A year later, international donors pledge more than $1.1bn to help Guinea-Bissau's economy revive after years of instability.