Mali profile - Mali
Mali's broadcast and print media were long hailed as being among the freest in Africa.
But that changed following a 2012 military coup and a months-long rebellion and Islamist insurgency in the north.
Civilian rule was restored in 2013, but journalists and media remain the targets of attacks and intimidation by armed groups and the security forces.
Radio is the leading medium. There are hundreds of stations, operated by private and community broadcasters and by the state-run Office de Radiodiffusion-Television du Mali (ORTM).
The TV sector is much smaller. Take-up is hindered by a lack of electricity in many areas.
There are around 30 daily and weekly newspapers, nearly all of them publishing from Bamako. Circulation figures are low. L'Essor is the leading title.
The BBC broadcasts in Bamako (88.9 FM) and Radio France Internationale is widely available on FM.
By 2016, 2.2 million Malians were online - around 12% of the population (Internetlivestats.com). There have been no reported instances of online censorship.
Social media use is concentrated in the cities and among young people. Facebook is the top platform, followed by Twitter.
- L'Essor - state-owned daily
- Le Republican - private daily
- L'Independent - private daily
- Les Echos - private daily
- Le Combat - private daily
- Office de la Radiodiffusion Television du Mali (ORTM) - public, operates ORTM TV and TM2, programmes in French and local languages
- Africable TV - privately-owned pan-African TV, based in Bamako
- Office de Radiodiffusion Television du Mali (ORTM) - public network of national and regional stations
- Mikado FM - operated by UN's MINUSMA mission
- Radio Bamakan - community station, Bamako
- Radio Liberte - private, Bamako
- Radio Kledu - private, Bamako
- Radio Kayira - private, Bamako
- Radio Rurale - network of community stations