Sudanese broadcasting is highly restricted and state TV and radio reflect government policy. Pre-censorship ensures that the news reflects official views.
Sudan ranked among the bottom 10 countries in the 2012 Reporters Without Borders press freedom index. "News is controlled, the media are under surveillance and journalists are harassed by the security forces," the watchdog has said.
Satellite dishes are a common sight in affluent areas and pan-Arab TV stations are popular.
The state runs the main radio networks. There is a handful of private FM radios in Khartoum; most of them focus on entertainment or Islam. Dutch-based Radio Dabanga aims to reach listeners in Darfur via shortwave.
The private press carries opposition views, but the state uses its powers to influence what is published.
Sudan had 4.2 million internet users by December 2011, comprising around 10% of the population (Internetworldstats).
According to web filtering monitoring body OpenNet Initiative (ONI), "Sudan openly acknowledges filtering content that transgresses public morality and ethics or threatens order." Blogging is "subject to scrutiny and can incur serious consequences".
- Al-Ra'y al-Amm (The Public Opinion) - private, daily
- Al-Ayam (The Days) - established daily
- Al-Jareeda (The Newspaper) - opposition-leaning
- Al-Sahafah (The Press) - privately-owned daily
- Sudan Vision - private daily, in English
- Sudan National Broadcasting Corporation (SNBC) - government-run, operates two channels, also available via satellite
- Al-Shuruq (Sunrise) - private, based in Dubai, via satellite
- Blue Nile TV - private, via satellite
- Omdurman TV - private, via satellite
- Sudan National Radio Corporation - government-run, national and regional networks in Arabic, English and other languages
- Mango 96 FM - private, music-based Khartoum station
- Khartoum FM - private, Khartoum