Sudan profile - Media
Sudanese broadcasting is highly restricted and state TV and radio reflect government policy. Pre-censorship ensures that the news reflects official views.
Sudan ranks among the bottom 10 countries in the Reporters Without Borders annual press freedom index.
The group says the national intelligence agency hounds journalists and censors newspapers - usually by closing them down or by seizing print runs.
Satellite dishes are a common sight in affluent areas and pan-Arab TV stations are popular.
Radio is an important news medium. The state runs the main networks and there is a handful of private FM radios - most of them focusing on entertainment or Islam.
Netherlands-based Radio Dabanga aims to reach listeners in Darfur via shortwave. Radio Tamazuj, also operating from the Netherlands, targets audiences on the Sudan-South Sudan border.
The private press carries opposition views, but the state uses its powers to influence what is published.
Sudan had 10.9 million internet users by 2016, comprising around 26% of the population (Internetlivestats). Curbs on traditional media have encouraged social media use.
Sudan filters online content that is deemed to damage morality or threaten public order, says monitoring body OpenNet Initiative (ONI).
- Al-Ra'y al-Amm (The Public Opinion) - private, daily
- Al-Ayam (The Days) - established daily
- Al-Jareeda (The Newspaper) - opposition-leaning
- Al-Sahafah (The Press) - privately-owned daily
- Sudan Vision - private daily, in English
- Sudan TV - government-run, also available via satellite
- Al-Shuruq (Sunrise) - private, based in Dubai, via satellite
- Blue Nile TV - private, via satellite
- Omdurman TV - private, via satellite
- Sudan Radio - government-run, national and regional networks in Arabic, English and other languages
- Mango 96 - private, music-based Khartoum station
- Khartoum FM - private, Khartoum
- Radio Dabanga - operated by Dutch NGO, targets Darfur
- Radio Tamazuj - Netherlands-based, for Sudan/South Sudan border area