Somalia's struggle for unity far from over


Andrew Harding: "People in Afgoye are trying to get used to something anarchic Somalia has not had for 20 years - a proper central government."

It's a bumpy half hour's drive inland from Mogadishu - with its furious traffic, its ruins, and its vast camps of displaced families - to the sleepy farming town of Afgoye.

After the dust and frenzy of the capital, Afgoye is almost shockingly green, surrounded by lush, well-irrigated fields. Trucks piled high with bananas rattle past us.

It is striking to note that most of the work in and around the town seems to be done by women - bent double in the fields, tending to cattle, and running the tiny makeshift shops that line the muddy roads.

A year ago, Afgoye was under the control of Somalia's Islamist militant group, al-Shabab, which held most of the countryside beyond Mogadishu.

But a concerted military push by Somali and African Union forces forced al-Shabab to retreat.

Start Quote

Abdi Farah Shirdon

Al-Shabab is acting as a wild card. They don't want life, they respect nothing”

End Quote Abdi Farah Shirdon Somali Prime Minister

Today the town seems as good a place as any to judge the progress this country, with its new internationally-backed government, is making towards stability after two decades of anarchy.

Slow progress

Before I set out for Afgoye, Somalia's new prime minister - a genial economist named Abdi Farah Shirdon - told me: "We control most of Somalia - more than 80%. The future is very promising.

"Al-Shabab is acting as a wild card. They don't want life. They respect nothing, but I believe they have no future."

But if they have lost control of many key towns these days, al-Shabab can still cause trouble.

On Sunday, minutes after I'd flown into Mogadishu, a car bomb exploded up the road at a busy roundabout, killing or injuring more than 30 people.

For several hours, the area was strewn with blood and debris, but a huge bulldozer quickly arrived to clear the area.

Although there were enduring scenes of grief and agony in the crowded, filthy wards at the nearby Medina hospital - by the end of the day, the damage at the roundabout was indistinguishable from the general, all-engulfing mess that is Mogadishu.

Soldier stands guard in Afgoye (30 July 2012) The army is making slow progress convincing local militias to don a uniform and commit to the idea of a united Somalia

I hitched a ride out to Afgoye the next morning with Ugandan peacekeepers from the African Union force, AMISOM.

Colonel Joseph Balikudembe commands the Ugandan forces, and escorted us into the muddy centre of town, where we were quickly surrounded by a well-armed, uniformed, and welcoming crowd of local Somali soldiers and policemen, together with a handful of civil and military officials.

Start Quote

Now is the right time to come here and register companies and farmers and start to collect revenue”

End Quote Saladeh Mohammed Usman Revenue collector

Across the street, several members of a local clan militia lounged in the shade beside a heavy machine gun, watching us with obvious suspicion.

"We want to empower the Somalis," said Colonel Balikudembe. "We are mentoring them. When we leave they should be able to do their own affairs."

But he conceded that they had only made "a bit of progress" so far, and that it was a "fight" to get everyone with a gun into a uniform, and committed to the idea of "united" Somalia.

"This district is very good," said the district commissioner, a portly, well-dressed man named Abdulahi Abdi Ahmed.

"But we need money from the UN - we have no police station, no court, no prison."

Still, he was adamant that al-Shabab would not return to the town, insisting "we have enough soldiers to defeat them now".

'Time to pay taxes'

I tried to talk to a group of civilians sitting nearby. There were mutterings about corruption and frustration with the new government, but policemen quickly surrounded us and the criticisms melted away.


Eventually a 24-year-old man named Ahmed Jabril pointed at the pot-holed roads and told me the new authorities were not doing enough.

"I don't have a job. The young people here don't have jobs. They finish high school. No university. They just stay at home playing football. It's disturbing my heart," he said.

But Saladeh Mohammed Usman, a large, energetic woman in a spectacularly bright pink dress, insisted the government was doing its best.

She's in charge of revenue collection for the Finance Ministry in the Lower Shabelle region, and had just driven from Mogadishu in her small white car with a couple of armed guards.

"I'm able to do this now that we have a recognised government that isn't transitional, and now that we've got some security. So now is the right time to come here and register companies and farmers and start to collect revenue. It's time for people to pay taxes again," she said emphatically.

So who will prevail in towns like Afgoye?

The forces of change and optimism like Ms Usman, or the clan militias and extremists hovering in the background, waiting for the new government to run out of money and momentum and poised to push Somalia back towards anarchy?

For now, I'd say the optimists have the edge. But it's going to be a long, precarious struggle.

Andrew Harding Article written by Andrew Harding Andrew Harding Africa correspondent

South Africa cricket: Not just a 'white sport'?

Andrew Harding looks at whether grassroots initiatives and quotas can help broaden cricket's appeal in South Africa.

Read full article

More on This Story

Somalia: Failed State

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites


This entry is now closed for comments

Jump to comments pagination
  • rate this

    Comment number 63.

    Somaliland seems to be doing alright.

  • rate this

    Comment number 62.

    I actually support Somaliland recognition but at the same time people must understand why UK is concerned for Somalia. Basically, when you mix Wahhabism jihadist plus illiteracy, then you have a deadly cocktail there and ignoring it is at your own peril. Globalisation won't stop one of these hateful ideology to come here, so Cameron is right to engage at all cost, majority of Somalis are victim.

  • rate this

    Comment number 61.

    Ahmed is an idiot and this coming from a Somali proud Briton. I must say that Islam my religion is very tolerant religion like all great religion in the world however, when bunch of illiterate sub-human savages jihadist with low self esteem have hijacked the whole religion in the name of their mini five minutes of fame, then we have to confront them wherever they reside and stop the madness.

  • rate this

    Comment number 60.

    PM David Cameron is much bigger man than many recognize. It is matter of time this man will be recognized internationally. PM Cameron is only man among the developed countries that is spearheading recognizing the problem of Somalia. Somalians will always remember this help.

  • rate this

    Comment number 59.

    Somalia is very poor country. Poverty, sexual harassment, Unemployment, War, Corruption, Hunger, Malnutrition are the serious problems of Somalia. EU, WORLD BANK, IMF and international community must help Somalia to become a country.
    "Help Somalia save life of millions of Somalis"


Comments 5 of 63


Features & Analysis

Elsewhere on the BBC

  • TravelAround the world

    BBC Travel takes a look at the most striking images from the past seven days


  • BatteriesClick Watch

    More power to your phone - the lithium-ion batteries that could last twice as long

Copyright © 2015 BBC. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read more.

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.