Dicing with death: South Africa's illegal gold miners
9 October 2013 Last updated at 12:06 BST
Thousands of men are risking their lives in what is being dubbed Johannesburg's second gold rush - an illegal and desperate scramble for what remains of the precious metal.
The men - many from poorer African countries - go underground to sift through the remnants of South Africa's abandoned mines.
Andrew Harding reports.