Soil turning to sand in Senegal
12 November 2015 Last updated at 18:30 GMT
It is not only political and economic upheaval that forces many people to try and make the dangerous journey from Africa to Europe.
According to the UN, an estimated 60 million people could move from desert areas of sub-Saharan Africa by 2020.
Senegal is one country where climate change is thought to be having a big impact.
Laeila Adjovi reports.