Papua New Guinea profile
A chronology of key events
16th century AD - Ships from China and the Malay Empire trade with islanders.
Britain lays claim
24th January 1885: British troops hoist the Union Jack at Port Moresby
1526 - Portuguese sailor Jorge de Meneses is the first European visitor. He names one of the islands "ilhas dos Papuas" or "land of fuzzy-haired people".
1546 - Spanish explorer Inigo Ortiz de Retes names the other main island New Guinea because the islanders resemble the people of Guinea in Africa.
1768 - French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville lands at the islands during his circumnavigation of the world. Gives name to an island just to the east of New Guinea.
1873 - Port Moresby is named after one of several English explorers to lay claim to the island for Great Britain.Europeans, Australians take control
1884 - Britain establishes a protectorate over south-east New Guinea, while Germany annexes the northern part of New Guinea.
1906 - Control of British New Guinea transferred to the newly independent Commonwealth of Australia and renamed Territory of Papua.
1914 - Australian forces occupy German New Guinea during World War I.
1921 - After the war the League of Nations grants Australia a mandate to run German New Guinea. This new Mandated Territory of New Guinea is governed totally separately from the Territory of Papua.
Port town grew into a modern city
- Named by British captain John Moresby after his father
- Annexed by the British in 1883-84
- Population (National Capital District): 254,000
1933 - Gold-prospectors lead expeditions into the highlands. Here they find more than a million people living in fertile mountain valleys, their way of life apparently unchanged since the Stone Age.
1942 - Japanese forces occupy parts of both territories.
1949 July - Australia establishes a joint administration over both territories called the Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
1951 November - A 28-member Legislative Council established by Australia.
1954 June - Aerial survey reveals several previously undiscovered highland valleys inhabited by up to 100,000 people.
1961 March - First elections involving indigenous population.
1963 May - UN transfers control of West New Guinea to Indonesia. Today this region is called Papua.
1964 June - A 64-member House of Assembly replaces Legislative Council and for the first time indigenous representatives are elected to the majority of seats in the legislature.
1971 July - Renamed Papua New Guinea (PNG).
1973 February - Indonesia and PNG agree position of Irian Jaya border.
1973 December - Granted self-government. Michael Somare, chief minister in an interim coalition government, is sworn in as head of the governing Executive Council.
Thousands died in the secessionist rebellion
1975 April - New currency, the kina, replaces the Australian dollar.Independence
1975 16 September - Attains full independence from Australia. Sir Michael Somare becomes PM.
1975 - Bougainville provincial government votes to secede from PNG. Somare's government retaliates by suspending the provincial government and withholding payments to the province.
1977 June-July - First parliamentary elections since independence.Separatist struggle
1989 April/May - Separatist rebels on Bougainville begin prolonged armed struggle against the government. Secessionist, Francis Ona, proclaims "a republic of Bougainville". The recently-formed Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), anxious about environmental destruction and unhappy that profits are leaving the island, forces the closure of the Australian-owned Panguna copper mine.
1994 - PM Sir Julius Chan signs agreement with several Bougainville secessionist leaders which provides a transitional administration in Bougainville. Bougainville Revolutionary Army leaders are not signatories; they continue to fight for full independence.
Former Prime Minister helped to broker peace accord
1995 April - The Bougainville Transitional Government is sworn in under leadership of Theodore Miriong. The three seats reserved for the BRA remain vacant.
1996 - Theodore Miriong is assassinated at his home in south-west Bougainville. He is replaced by Gerard Sinato.
1997 February-March - Government hires mercenaries from Sandline International to support government troops in Bougainville, sparking an army mutiny and civil unrest. Prime Minister Chan is forced to resign.
1997 September - The government declares a national state of disaster following a prolonged drought thought to have been caused by the El Nino weather phenomenon. Over 1,000 people are killed and a further 1.2 million are put at risk of starvation.Truce
1997 October - Burnham Truce marks the end of the decade-old armed struggle by Bougainville separatists.
1997 December - Countries in the region establish the Truce Monitoring Group to oversee compliance with the Burnham Truce until 30 April 1998 when a ceasefire is to be signed. The New Zealand-led group also comprises troops from Australia, Fiji and Vanuatu. All of them are unarmed.
1998 April - Permanent ceasefire signed in Bougainville by government representatives and secessionist leaders. Australian-led Peace Monitoring Group takes over from Truce Monitoring Group.
Australia deploys forces to monitor the peace process and help fight rampant crime
1998 July - Three tsunamis - gigantic waves generated by earthquakes - hit the north-west coast obliterating villages and killing 3,000 people.
1998 August - United Nations establishes the UN Political Office in Bougainville at the request of the PNG government.
1999 1 January - Bougainville Reconciliation Government replaces the Bougainville Transitional Government. Former rebel leader Joseph Kabui and Gerard Sinato are nominated as co-leaders.
1999 May - Joseph Kabui elected president of the Bougainville People's Congress.
1999 December - John Momis sworn in as governor of Bougainville.
2000 November - Authorities say all 1,000 inhabitants of the Duke of York atoll will have to be relocated because the island is slowly sinking due to global warming.
2001 August - Bougainville Peace Agreement, guaranteeing a referendum in 10 to 15 years on Bougainville's future political status, is signed in Arawa.
Crime on the rise
So called 'raskol' gangs instill fear and fight for influence in larger cities
2002 August - Sir Michael Somare elected as prime minister for a third time, after a violent and chaotic election.
2004 August - Australia deploys police to help fight rampant crime.
2005 May - Australia withdraws its police officers after the PNG Supreme Court rules that their deployment is unconstitutional.
Bougainville islanders elect their first autonomous government. Former separatist rebel Joseph Kabui becomes president.
2007 May - Parliament passes a law to allow casinos and online gambling. It is hoped that the activity could boost the economy.
2007 August - Sir Michael Somare re-elected as premier.
2007 November - Cyclone Guba causes flooding which kills 163 and leaves more than 13,000 displaced in Oro and Milne provinces.
2008 June - Bougainville President Joseph Kabui dies.
2008 December - Former rebel James Tanis elected autonomous president of Bougainville.
2009 December - China signs a deal to import liquified natural gas from Papua New Guinea.Political crisis
2011 April-June - Prime Minister Michael Somare is suspended for two weeks over charges of misconduct dating back 20 years. He extends his absence for medical reasons and undergoes heart surgery in Singapore. In June, his family announces his retirement from the premiership and from politics.
At nature's mercy
PNG lies on the "Ring of Fire", an area prone to volcanic eruptions
2011 August - Parliament elects Peter O'Neill as acting prime minister, replacing acting prime minister Sam Abal, who takes legal action against the move.
2011 September - Michael Somare returns from Singapore and claims that he is still the prime minister, saying that he did not retire voluntarily.
2011 December - Standoff between Peter O'Neill and Michael Somare continues, with both running parallel administrations. Governor-General Michael Ogio recognises the election of Peter O'Neill, who has has the backing of a majority of parliamentary deputies.
2012 January - Mutinous soldiers demanding the reinstatement of Sir Michael Somare as PM briefly seize the military headquarters in Port Moresby.
2012 June - Rival prime ministers Peter O'Neill and Sir Michael Somare contest parliamentary elections, hoping that the results will decide who is in charge.
2012 July-August - Sir Michael Somare accepts the defeat of his party in the June poll and backs Peter O'Neill's bid to form a government. Parliament endorses Mr O'Neill as PM in August.
2013 January - PM Peter O'Neill bans ministers and other government officials from travelling overseas for work without his personal approval.
2013 May - Following a series of brutal public killings, the controversial 1971 Sorcery Act - which acknowledged the accusation of sorcery as a plausible defence in murder cases - is repealed. However, parliament also extends the range of offences for which the death penalty can be applied, to the dismay of human rights organisations.
2013 July - Papua New Guinea agrees to provide offshore processing for asylum seekers who reach Australia by boat. Under the deal, asylum seekers whose refugee claims are upheld will be settled in PNG. Australia pledges to grant Papua New Guinea generous aid in return, and the processing centre on PNG's Manus Island will be significantly expanded to hold up to 3,000 people.