Turkmenistan profile - Media
The Turkmen government has an absolute monopoly of the media. The authorities monitor media outlets, control printing presses, block websites, monitor internet use and lay down editorial policies.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says a 2013 media law, which bans censorship, is a "complete fiction". The watchdog says independent journalists work in secret, reporting for outlets based abroad.
An "atmosphere of fear" prevents reporting of negative news, says Freedom House.
TV is the most popular medium. State-run broadcast media comprise several national TV and radio networks. Rebroadcasts of Russian TV are subject to censorship.
Some citizens watch Russian and Turkish TV via satellite. Government attempts to curb satellite viewing have been largely unsuccessful, says Freedom House.
US-government funded Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty broadcasts in Turkmen by shortwave and satellite under the name Radio Azatlyk.
Turkmentelecom and other state bodies control internet access, which is prohibitively expensive for most citizens. There were nearly 425,000 internet users by July 2014 (InternetLiveStats.com) - a penetration rate of 8%.
Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and LiveJournal are blocked, as are foreign news and opposition websites. RSF lists Turkmenistan as an "Enemy of the Internet".
- Neytralnyy Turkmenistan - state-owned daily, in Russian
- Turkmenistan - state-owned daily, in Turkmen
- Watan (Homeland) - state-owned daily, in Turkmen
- Galkynys (Revival) - weekly; mouthpiece of ruling Democratic Party of Turkmenistan
- Turkmen TV - state-owned; its seven networks include main channel Altyn Asyr (Golden Age)
- Turkmen Radio - state-owned; its five networks include main channel Watan (Homeland)