Television is the most-popular medium. Alongside the state broadcaster there are more than a dozen private TVs, most of them entertainment-based. Russian channels are widely-watched.
There are more than 200 registered papers, but no dailies. Some titles are government-owned, and others are linked to political movements. Privately-owned papers have a very small readership.
Radio is the only broadcast medium that can be received in all areas of the country. Private stations operate alongside state-run networks.
Media rights organisations report that, although provided for in the constitution, press freedom is not widely respected.
Freedom House says independent journalists face harassment and intimidation. The government controls most printing presses and broadcasting facilities, it adds.
There were one million internet users by June 2012 (InternetWorldStats). Competition among providers is low, and access charges remain high.
Independent news websites are prone to blocking. Facebook was blocked for a time in March 2012 - a move that Reporters Without Borders said was "absurd", as the platform had only 35,000 users in Tajikistan, far fewer than on Russian social networks.
Minbar-i Khalq - published by People's Democratic Party
Jumhuriyat - government-owned, published in Tajik three times a week
Khalq Ovozi - government-owned, published in Uzbek three times a week
Narodnaya Gazeta - government-owned, published in Russian three times a week
Neru-i Sukhan - privately-owned, weekly
Nido-i Ranjbar - Tajik-language weekly, published by the Communist Party
Golos Tajikistana - Russian-language weekly, published by the Communist Party
Tojikiston - privately-owned Tajik-language weekly
Najot - weekly, published by Islamic Rebirth Party
Tajik TV - state-run; operates Tajik TV first channel, Safina youth channel, news channel Jahonnamo, children's network Bahoriston and regional channels
Soghd TV - state-run regional station in north
Khatlon TV - state-run regional station in south
SMT (Independent Television of Tajikistan) - private, Dushanbe
Tajik Radio- state-run, operates Radio Tajikistan, Radio Sado-i Dushanbe (Voice of Dushanbe), culture network Radio Farhang, external service Ovoz-i Tojik
Radio Imruz - private, available in all regions
Radio Vatan - Dushanbe, private
Radio Tiroz - Khujand, private
Radio Asia-Plus - Dushanbe, private
Asia-Plus - private, English-language pages
Khovar - state-run, English-language pages
Avesta - private, English-language pages