Vietnam profile - Media
The Communist Party keeps a strong hold on the media and the information ministry controls the press and broadcasting.
TV is the main medium. State-run Vietnam Television (VTV) runs the only national networks. VTV-owned satellite and cable pay TV platforms carry some foreign TVs.
Radio is state-controlled. Voice of Vietnam (VoV) networks include VoV 5, with output in English, French and Russian.
There are hundreds of newspapers and magazines. The Communist Party, government bodies and the military own or control almost all of them, says Freedom House. Best-selling dailies Tuoi Tre and Thanh Nien are run by youth organisations in Ho Chi Minh City.
Vietnam's media environment is one of the harshest in Asia, says Freedom House. The NGO says journalists can report on local-level corruption but open criticism of the state is not tolerated.
There were 49 million internet users by 2016 (InternetLiveStats). Material deemed obscene is filtered, as are opposition sites. Cyber attacks often target politically sensitive websites, says Freedom House.
Bloggers and citizen journalists are sources of independent news, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF). But they face "harsh persecution". After China, Vietnam is the world's second biggest prison for citizen journalists, RSF says.
Zing Me is a popular domestic gaming and social networking platform. Another social media site, Go.vn, is run by the state broadcaster.
- Nhan Dan - Communist Party daily, English-language pages
- Le Courrier du Vietnam - in French
- Vietnam News - state-run, English-language daily
- Tuoi Tre - daily, published by Communist Youth Union, English-language website
- Thanh Nien - daily, published by Vietnam Youth Federation
- The Saigon Times - business weekly, English-language website
- VTV - Vietnam Television
- Voice of Vietnam - operates national networks and an external service
- Dai Tieng Noi Nhan Dan - Ho Chi Minh City
- VietNamNetBridge - news site run by Information Ministry, English-language pages