State-run and public media compete with private and opposition publications and broadcasters. TV is the most popular medium. A public broadcaster is intended to be free from government control.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says the media are highly polarised, with the private and opposition press coming under "continual pressure". RSF has placed President Aliyev on its list of "predators of press freedom".
In 2012, the New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists named Azerbaijan as being among "the top 10 global jailers of the press".
Newspaper distribution is largely limited to Baku. There is a small opposition press. Radio is mostly entertainment-based. Local relays of the BBC and US international radios were closed in late 2008 by the broadcasting regulator.
Turkey's state-run TRT TV is rebroadcast in Azerbaijan and Iranian and Russian channels can be seen in border areas. A surge in satellite dish ownership means that many viewers can watch international channels.
There were 4.7 million internet users by June 2012 (InternetWorldStats). RSF reports that the internet, once a "free conduit" for activism, is coming under closer scrutiny by the authorities. It says social media networks risk being blocked, and several online activists have been imprisoned.
The opposition uses blogs to make political comment, and footage of protests and police actions has been uploaded to YouTube.
- Azarbaycan - government daily
- Azadliq - opposition daily
- Ekho - private daily, in Russian
- Zerkalo - private daily, in Russian
- Ayna - private daily, in Azeri
- Yeni Musavat - opposition title
- Yeni Azarbaycan - ruling party title
- Ekspress - weekly
- 525 Qazet - weekly
- AzTV - state-run, operates three networks
- iTV - public
- ANS TV - established private network
- Space TV - private
- Lider TV - private
- Xazar TV - private
- Azad Azarbaycan (ATV) - private