France profile

A chronology of key events:

1789 - French Revolution ends rule of monarchy going back to 9th century; followed by establishment of the First Republic.

Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte was renowned for his military victories across Europe

  • Born in 1769 in Corsica
  • Defeated twice by British forces - at Trafalgar and Waterloo

1799 - Napoleon Bonaparte leads coup to overthrow government; consolidates position with new constitution.

1804-1814 - Napoleon crowns himself emperor of First French Empire; series of military successes brings most of continental Europe under his control.

1815 - Napoleon defeated in Battle of Waterloo; monarchy reestablished.

1848 - Fall of King Louis-Philippe; Louis-Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, proclaimed president of Second Republic.

1852-1870 - Louis-Napoleon takes title of Napoleon III in Second Empire.

1870-71 - Franco-Prussian War, ending in French defeat, loss of Alsace-Lorraine and end of the Second Empire; Third Republic lasts until 1940.

1877 - Republicans win general elections, ending hopes of a monarchist revival.

1914-18 World War I - Massive casualties in trenches in north-east France; 1.3 million Frenchmen are killed and many more wounded by the end of the war.

View towarsd the Sacre Coeur in Paris in 2013
  • French capital has inspired artists, thinkers
  • Named after Parisii, Celtic tribe who lived on site
  • Nicknamed "City of Light"
  • City planner Baron Haussmann laid out much of modern Paris in 19th century

1918 - Anglo-French offensive - backed by fresh American troops - forces Germany to an armistice on 11 November.

1919 - Peace Treaty of Versailles. France regains Alsace-Lorraine; Germany agrees to reparations.

1936-38 - Rise of the Popular Front, an alliance of left-wing forces.

1939-45 - World War II - Germany occupies much of France. Vichy regime in unoccupied south collaborates with Nazis. General de Gaulle, undersecretary of war, establishes government-in-exile in London and, later, Algiers. Rise of French Resistance.

Liberation

1944 - Allied forces land at Normandy leading to liberation of France. De Gaulle sets up provisional government. Purge against former collaborators.

Charles de Gaulle

General Charles de Gaulle

General De Gaulle formed a wartime government-in-exile and later became president

1946 - De Gaulle resigns as provisional president, replaced by Socialist Felix Gouin.

1946-58 - Fourth Republic is marked by economic reconstruction and the start of the process of independence for many of France's colonies.

1951 - France joins West Germany and other European nations in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) - leading to the formation in 1957 of the European Economic Community (EEC).

1954 First Indochina War ends - French defeated at Battle of Dien Bien Phu in north-west Vietnam.

Algerian War of Independence begins.

1956 - Colonial rule ends in Morocco and Tunisia.

Fifth Republic

1958 - De Gaulle returns to power on back of Algerian crisis and founds the Fifth Republic, with a stronger presidency.

1962 - Algeria granted independence from French colonial rule.

Francois Mitterrand

Former French president Francois Mitterrand
  • Founder of the Socialist Party was president for 13 years
  • Born in Jarnac, 1916
  • 1946: Elected to National Assembly
  • 1981: Elected as president at third attempt; re-elected in 1988
  • Died in Paris, 1996

1968 May - Student revolt against government policies and lack of social reform escalates into national strike.

1969 - De Gaulle leaves office. Georges Pompidou elected president.

1970 - De Gaulle dies of stroke.

1974 - Pompidou dies, succeeded by Valery Giscard d'Estaing.

1981 - Socialist candidate Francois Mitterrand is elected president.

1986 - Centre-right victory in legislative elections of 1986 leads to "co-habitation" - a left-wing president and a right-wing prime minister, Jacques Chirac.

1988 - Mitterrand re-elected.

1992 - France signs Maastricht Treaty on European union.

1995 - Jacques Chirac elected president, ending 14 years of Socialist presidency.

Jacques Chirac

Jacques Chirac gives a televised address on 11 March 2007

Centre-right president for 12 years, convicted of corruption in 2012

  • Born 1932
  • Prime minister in 1974-6 and 1986-8
  • Defeated by Francois Mitterand in 1981 and 1988 presidential elections
  • President 1995-2007 (re-elected in 2002)

France attracts international condemnation by conducting a series of nuclear tests in the Pacific.

1997 - Lionel Jospin becomes prime minister.

2000 September - President Chirac embroiled in corruption scandal. He dismisses newspaper allegations.

2001 June - Compulsory military service abolished.

2002 January - Euro replaces franc, first minted in 1360.

Jospin resigns, Chirac re-elected

2002 May - Jacques Chirac re-elected president, beating National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen in the second round of voting. Jean-Marie strong Le Pen's showing in the first round sent shockwaves across France and Europe and prompted mass demonstrations.

Lionel Jospin, the main left-wing presidential contender whom Le Pen knocked out in the first round, resigns the premiership and the Socialist Party leadership.

2002 June - Landslide victory in legislative elections for centre-right UMP. Jean-Pierre Raffarin's new centre-right government ends the "cohabitation" between President Chirac and Socialist Lionel Jospin.

2002 November - Widespread public sector strikes over government privatisation plans bring country to a standstill.

2003 March - Constitution changed to allow devolution to regions and departments of powers over economic development, transport, tourism, culture and further education.

2003 July - Corsica referendum, first to follow March constitutional amendments, narrowly votes against establishment of unified assembly with limited powers to raise and spend taxes. Paris had hoped that a yes vote would end separatist violence.

Parliament approves controversial reforms to pension system.

2004 March - President Chirac's UMP routed in regional elections.

 Anti-riot policemen patrol in in the northern Paris suburb of Clichy-sous-Bois on 2 November 2005, after police clashed with angry youths for the sixth straight night following the death by electrocution on 27 October of two boys who believed they were chased by police.

Youth riots in impoverished suburbs shook France in 2005

2004 November - Nicolas Sarkozy takes over as leader of UMP.

2005 January - Trade unions organise wave of public sector strikes against proposed labour, pension and welfare reforms.

2005 May - Referendum goes against proposed EU constitution. The result prompts a political shake-up, including the resignation of Prime Minister Raffarin.

2005 June - International project group says France is to host the world's first experimental nuclear fusion reactor at Cadarache, near Marseille.

Urban violence

2005 October-November - Largely immigrant communities in north-east Paris are hit by riots after two youths of North African origin are electrocuted in an electricity substation. The authorities deny they were being chased by police. Unrest spreads to other cities. Government introduces emergency measures.

2006 March-April - New youth employment laws spark mass demonstrations in Paris and other cities across France. As protests continue, the legislation is scrapped.

Sarkozy becomes president

2007 May - Nicolas Sarkozy, the former interior minister and leader of the ruling conservative UMP, wins a decisive victory in the second round of the presidential election.

2007 June - The UMP wins parliamentary elections, but with a reduced majority. The party insists it still has a mandate to carry out its proposed reforms.

2007 November - Civil servants take to the streets, along with workers from the transport and energy sectors, to protest against Mr Sarkozy's planned cuts in pay and jobs, and reform of pension benefits. There is widespread disruption of public services.

2008 February - France formally ratifies Lisbon Treaty on reform of European Union.

Financial crisis

2008 October - European governments pledge up to 1.8 trillion euros as part of co-ordinated plans to shore up their financial sectors, hit hard by the global financial crisis. France says it will inject 10.5bn euros into the country's six largest banks.

Headscarf ban

Woman wearing headscarf

Ban on religious symbols provoked intense debate

2010 March - Ruling UMP suffers heavy defeat in regional elections, losing control of all but one of the 22 regions in mainland France and Corsica.

2010 June - Government announces public spending cuts of 45bn euros in effort to reduce high level of public debt.

2010 July - Prosecutors launch inquiry into allegations that L'Oreal heiress Liliane Bettencourt made illegal donations to President Sarkozy's 2007 election campaign.

2010 August - France begins to dismantle illegal Roma (gypsy) camps and to deport their residents back to Romania and Bulgaria, as part of a package of new security measures.

Pension protests

2010 September-October - Hundreds of thousands turn out in several waves of trade union-led protests against government plans to raise retirement age to 62.

2010 November - France concludes military and nuclear accord with UK. Under the terms of the new treaty, the two countries will cooperate in testing nuclear warheads.

Nicolas Sarkozy speaking in the French overseas territory of Reunion during his campaign for the presidency in 2007

Nicolas Sarkozy was a divisive figure as president in 2007-12

2011 March - France plays prominent role in imposing and enforcing no-fly zone over Libya.

2011 April - Face veil ban comes into force.

2011 May - French political establishment is shaken by arrest of Dominique Strauss-Kahn, who had been tipped as a strong Socialist candidate for the presidency, in New York on sexual assault charges that were later dropped.

2011 August - Government announces package of austerity measures aimed at reducing public deficit by 12bn euros over two years. In November it announces a further 7bn euros of cuts in 2012 and 11.6bn euros in 2013.

2011 September - Credit rating agency Moody's downgrades the two biggest French banks, Credit Agricole and Societe Generale, because of their exposure to Greek debt.

2012 January - France loses its top AAA credit rating from Standard & Poor's.

2012 February - The Constitutional Council strikes down as violating freedom of expression a new law making it a crime to deny genocide was committed by Ottoman Turks against Armenians during World War I.

2012 March - French Islamist Mohamed Merah shoots dead seven people, including three Jewish schoolchildren, in Toulouse, before himself being shot dead in a police siege of his flat.

France bans militant Islamist preachers from entering the country, beginning with the Qatari-based Egyptian Yusuf al-Qaradawi.

Hollande presidency

2012 May - Socialist candidate Francois Hollande beats Nicolas Sarkozy in the run-off presidential election. He appoints close ally Jean-Marc Ayrault as prime minister.

President Hollande announces the withdrawal of combat troops from Afghanistan by the end of 2012, a year earlier than scheduled.

French police detain the last military leader of the Basque separatist group Eta, Oroitz Gurruchaga Gogorza, and his deputy Xabier Aramburu in a joint operation with Spain.

A French soldier stands guard in an armoured vehicle as a helicopter carrying French army chief Gen Bertrand Ract-Madoux gets airborne south of the nothern Malian town of Tessalit 21 March 2013. France underlined its military's continuing international role by intervening against jihadist militants in Mali

2012 June - Socialists win comfortable majority in parliamentary elections.

2012 August - France posts zero growth in the second quarter of 2012, as in the previous two.

2012 October - Anti-terror police carry out a series of raids nationwide, arresting 11 suspects, after police shoot dead a man in Strasbourg suspected of targeting a Paris Jewish shop.

2012 November - Moody's rating agency downgrades France's credit rating from the top triple-A billing to Aa1, citing weak growth and the eurozone crisis.

Intervention in Mali

2013 January - French commando raid to rescue a hostage in Somalia fails. Al-Shabab Islamist rebels later say they executed the man.

French forces intervene in Mali and help government recapture northern regions seized by Islamists. They begin to withdraw in April.

2013 March - Budget Minister Jerome Cahuzac - a vocal crusader against overseas tax havens - resigns after belatedly admitting to owning a secret Swiss bank account, in an embarrassing scandal for President Hollande.

A dog wearing a coat reading "With Hollande, more VAT, fewer jobs" takes part in a demonstration against unemployment on 7 December 2013 in Paris. A stubbornly high rate of unemployment - "chomage" in French - led to a growing debate about economic reform

2013 May - France enters second recession in four years after the economy shrinks by 0.2% in the first quarter.

2013 June - The International Monetary Fund calls on France to lower its labour costs and halt tax hikes to boost both growth and its competitiveness, or else face a widening gap with its European neighbours.

2013 November - Standard and Poor's (S&P) downgrades France's credit rating further from AA+ to AA, citing high unemployment.

2013 December - France deploys 1,600 troops to the Central African Republic to try to restore order.

2014 March - Interior minister Manuel Valls replaces Jean-Marc Ayrault as prime minister after the governing Socialists suffer a poll drubbing in municipal elections. The far-right National Front makes significant gains in the polls.

2014 May - The far-right Front National wins the European elections in France with about a quarter of the vote, pushing President Hollande's Socialists into third place.

2014 July - Ex-President Nicolas Sarkozy is detained and placed under formal investigation over allegations he sought insider information about a probe into illegal campaign funding. He says the move is a plot to stop his return to politics.

2014 August - President Hollande orders the formation of a new cabinet after three ministers publicly criticize his austerity strategy.

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